Thus, crisis unresolved during this stage will lead children to become compulsively moralistic or overly inhibited (Apruebo, 2008). This theory aided the research in such a way that it explains how a child, especially during their play age develop a psychopathology which causes in the delay of the development of a child. Psychoanalytic Approach Dr. Sigmund Freud asserts that the first few years of life are decisive for the formation of personality. He developed five stages namely: the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and genital stage. In these stages especially during the phallic stage, Freud believed that identification will occur (Apruebo, 2008).
As the result, children may loss their self-esteem which is a critical development in their emotional aspect. According to some studies, when parents separate, children especially five to ten years old results to be one of the most unlucky persons by the fact that they lose the chance of having a happy family. People cannot blame a child who has no respect, low self-esteem, having a bad attitude, and dealing the world unjustly because we do not know their background. These children might have an ignorance of being a rightful people. They maybe not nourished by their parents well.
This is normally occurred to infancy, from birth to eighteen month older. It is the stage where infancy learn to trust their parents care and their affections. Sometimes infancy could develop distrust and they viewed the World as inconsistent and its unpredictable and the virtue is Hope. In addition, the second stage is Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Developments occur to a child toddler age, this is from eighteen months to the age of three years.
Eriksons viewing of development in terms of psycho-social crisis’ also takes on board Jungs concern for the need of a deeper/meaningful view of human development. It doesn’t however go so far into the symbolic as Jung remaining in the conceptual or ‘idealistic’ making it accessible for those of a less metaphysical slant. The first stage that runs for the first year of life with the mother/care giver as the significant relationship is presented as the crisis between trust and distrust. This fundamental stage mirrors that of the oral stage in Freud with a successful outcome being that of a person capable of trust and generally optimistic. The second stage following roughly the next year of life where the crisis is that of Autonomy/Doubt reflects the Anal Stage in Freud.
This stage Trust vs. Mistrust. Happens in the first year of life, is centered around the infant’s needs being met. If the need is not being met the infant may learn to mistrust. Stage two is Autonomy vs. Doubt.
The first stage of our lifespan is “Trust vs Mistrust” stage. Newborn infant will undergo this stage. In this stage, infant will learn trust towards an adult when the infant feel secure and comfortable with them. This can be developed if the parent taking good cares of them by fulfilled their basic requirement for survival such as hunger. Infant who gets fed when he is hungry and comforted when he needs comforting will develop trust but some mistrust is necessary to learn to discriminate between honest and dishonest (Sharkey, 1997).
Mistrust Psychosocial Developmental Stage. Erickson’s Trust vs Mistrust stage starts at infancy and proceeds to eighteen months. At this stage, the infant is learning how to trust others, especially those who care for them on a daily basis. If the infant’s needs are met throughout this period, the infant advances to the next developmental stage. If the infant cries because of hunger, the parents should provide them with a bottle, fulfilling the basic need of the child.
A child with a strong attachment will have a stable social and emotional development and will be more adventurous and eager to have new experiences. WEAKNESSES Researcher aureus that If an attachment has not developed during this period (0-5 years), then the child will suffer from lack of concentration and become very aggressive. Bowlby also emphases on the important of an attachment of one primary care giver at the expense of the father. Some psychologist argues that the type of attachment an infant has with the care giver determines their personality The attachment model has many limitation and there is no consideration for children with autism. The feminist also criticized this theory of attachment.
This stage is spanning from the age of eighteen months to three years. During this period, the child learns to use the toilet and the ability to restrain the urge to stool. The emergence of problems in the relationship between child and parents (for example, when some parents punish, ridicule or shame a child for any accidents) would lead to what is called anal-retentive personality. Freud believed that when an anal-retentive personality evolves, the individual may become too stringent, rigid, and obsessive if parents are too strict whether begin toilet training too
To ignore her surroundings, she might find comfort in harmful tactics”(Bhadra). The consequences and process of a pregnancy can cause depression. “When a teen is pregnant, concerns may be high. The lack of experience of being a mother and expectations that need to be met may be a huge burden to carry. Most likely Teens do not plan to get pregnant when they engage in sexual behavior.