The role of counselling or psychotherapy is a “means of gaining access to cultural resources that can be used to solve or resolve problems in living and to construct a life that has meaning and purpose”. (McLeod, J. 2005). Cultural resources from a pluralistic stance focus on the strengths of a client (Duncan, Miller and Sparks, 2004). They are viewed as both a form of resilience and strength, but also as a means by which a client can be connected to a social network outside of the therapy room.
Therapists must access their own internal process such as their feelings, attitudes and moods. Therapists’, who are not receptive to the awareness of their flow of thoughts and feelings, will not be able to help clients be aware of theirs (Kahn, 1997, p. 40). Though congruence does not mean that therapists have to share personal issues with clients, a therapist must not conceal their inner process from the client, and not be defensive but transparent (Kahn, 1997, p. 41). By being open sometimes a therapist learns more not only about their client but about themselves
If we take the example of therapeutic alliance; the psychodynamic therapist assumes authority where the person-centered emphasizes equality. In my opinion, it is essential that the therapist is in the position of authority at the beginning of the therapeutic process. The client may begin to see that if the superordinate therapist accepts the client unconditionally, then they might reduce their conditions of worth and accept themselves also. This might not be as effective if the therapist is seen as an equal because the superego/conditions of worth are not generally adapted from those who are equal. As the client comes closer to insight, the therapist can start giving the control back to the client, just as the parent child relationship becomes more equal as the child becomes more mature.
Afterwards, Shapiro and Startup developed a brief manual and rating scale for depression in 1991 (Guthrie, 1999). The model was constructed on psychodynamic principles, but also impressed by humanistic and interpersonal concepts. At the beginning, it was called ‘conversational model of therapy’. The essential role of the therapist in this model is to develop the ‘mutual feeling
INTRODUCTION Advanced Counselling Theories: Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PP) rooted from traditional psychoanalysis theories. PP operates with the basic assumption that focuses on unconscious processes, recognising how a person’s behaviour and feelings in the present rooted from childhood experiences in the past. The objective of PP is to facilitate client to reach self-awareness and to have a better understanding of the problems by identifying the origin of the issues as well as underlying causes that may be present. PP places heavy emphasis on client’s relationships and interpersonal experience (Shedler, 2010). The approach of PP acknowledge the importance of therapeutic alliance.
In modern-day psychology we are equipped with a wide variety of therapies, techniques, and approaches that have been based on the different models and theories of human behavior and development. Because many new situations arise during psychotherapy, psychologists have come up with different theoretical models of counseling that are applicable for these cases. These theoretical models of counseling have helped in overcoming the impacts of several emotional psychological difficulties such as stress, depression and anxiety (Fall & Holden, 2010). As they may solve similar problems in human beings, these models also have their differences. Throughout this paper I will compare and contrast two theoretical models of counseling; cognitive behavioral
Psychologists have to adhere to specific rules in the scope of their job to enhance professionalism, offer quality services and ensure the health of their clients improves. However, a number of factors may impact the process and this includes multiple relationships. In this regard, the therapist may be involved in more than one role with the client, and this may have implication on the treatment. For instance, when a therapist is a close relative of the patient such as mother or sibling may influence the outcome of the process. Innately, therapists are instructed to have a strict professional association with the client but they may at times be involved in violations where they deviate from the traditional approach.
Anxiety on the part of the learner leads to anxious behavior. The learner if feeling anxious in the acquisition of a language will exhibit behavioral and physical manifestations such as avoidance behavior and blushing or uncontrollable nervousness. If the root of the anxiety is found, coping strategies by the learners and interventions by the language educator will both be helpful in alleviating
(Rogers, 1979) 6. The communication to the client of the therapist’s empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard are to some degree achieved PCT emphasises the relationship between the counsellor and the client. For PCT to be effective, the client must be aware, to some level, of the existence of the therapist’s empathy and unconditional positive regard for the client. If not, they do not exist in the relationship for client and so change cannot occur in therapy (Rogers,
A research done by Occhipinti (2009) on her thesis entitled “Foreign Language Anxiety in Class Speaking Activities” in a foreign language class in universities. The findings of the research are likely to support other studies, by asserting that foreign language anxiety is a common debilitating feeling which affects students in a variety of ways. This is also frequently happening to foreign language learners in many grades from high schools to universities. Particularly frequent during speaking activities, she thought that the awareness of such a feeling should be heightened and not be undervalued by teachers and learners. This could be realized through workshops or the adoption of certain teaching methodologies aimed to create a relaxed atmosphere