Introduction People who guide and interact with the children must have the basic knowledge of their overall personality development from birth to puberty. So especially parents must know how to guide their children, and should have a basic knowledge of the development of sexuality from infancy to adolescence. Freud (1964) believes that children’s pleasure is governed by the id and are focused on a different area of the body (Erogenous zone) at each stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. According to Freud (1953) as cited in Sareen (2013), believed that personality development is influenced by the behavior of a child.
Erikson and Freud both believed potty training was an important part of this process. Erikson felt if the toddler could master his or her bodily functions then he or she will gain some independence and control. If this stage is completed successfully then the toddler will feel secure and confident, opposed to those who unsuccessfully complete this stage who have doubt and inadequacy. This stage involves quite a bit of parental support and Erikson believed if parents are too controlling during this stage they are breaking the toddler’s will. This leads into the next human strength, will.
Cognitive development refers to the age-related changes that occur in mental activities such as paying attention, learning, thinking and recollecting (Cole & Cole, 2001). Cognitive abilities take from birth to young adulthood and then are maintained or decreased as a result of age, depending on specific abilities (Craik and Bialystok, 2006). Adolescents who are more advanced in the development of abstract reasoning and information-processing skills seem to be more likely to reach James Marcia’s status of identity achievement. Therefore, parenting plays an essential role. Strong parent-child attachment bonds not only provide adolescents with support, but also with a secure base of freedom to explore.
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
Autonomy vs shame and doubt, children from the ages of 1- 3 years are able to comprehend more about their self-image and self-control. Children can also control their body functions by completing certain assignments which gives them the feeling of freedom and self-governance. In Erikson’s third stage of his theory children can understand the difference between what is wrong and right in a social environment. However, children are very easily affected by their errors, and they are not able to see the extent of their actions. As indicated by Erikson 's 4th stage of psychosocial development, children in their middle school years start to perform more convoluted duties and see more perplexing thoughts at this stage.
It is based on the idea that the early relationship that develops between the infant and caregiver provides the foundation for later development. Bowlby’s
Piagetian/cognitive approach The way children develops takes place in many areas including the physical or motor skills, speech and language, social and emotional, cognitive and intellectual abilities (kid sense child development 2008). Due to these stages of development Piaget came up with a cognitive approach to further explain child development. Cognitive development is when one gets the quality to learn, process information, think and remember with time (Lynn and Wolf 2009). Jean Piaget came up with four stages of cognitive development but
Daycare teaches children exceptional motor skills, social skills and connection skills to prepare the child for school. Daycare focuses on the importance of the relationships built through connections. The first and most grounded of any association is the safe relationship. In this kind of relationship, the child introduced to someone they can trust and feel safe around. The second type of connection comes through unsafe relationships.
Compare and contrast Sigmund Freud 's psychosexual theory of development and Erik Erikson 's psychosocial theory of development. Introduction The stages of human development have been a discussing issue among the educators, psychologists and philosophers. There are numerous developmental theories regarding the growth and development of an individual.
Sigmund Freud is Psychology’s most famous psychoanalysis. His work and theories have helped shape our views of personality, levels of consciousness and unconsciousness mind, the structure of personality and the development of personality. There are three aspects to Freud’s theory of personality structure and fives stages through the psychosexual development. The psyche