Graff paints reading as an insufferable and tedious chore that must be endured and the way that one is able to complete such a task is through theoretical analysis of the text. However, some students have a passion for reading that can drive them to spend time studying and interpreting a text. This would lead to more original ideas than interpretations that are influenced by what other critics say about a text or by the reader being told how to read a text. Graff does not believe in Bloom’s idea of “just reading”: “As readers, we are necessarily concerned with both the questions posed by the text and the questions we bring to it from our own differing interests and cultural backgrounds” (46-47). While Graff views this as an unavoidable contamination of “pure” reading, I believe this can also be viewed as a unique perspective that could be lost by an introduction to literary theory.
Using characteristics of the authors themselves and their stories looking at historical events, life experience and the dominant culture we can receive a more accurate understanding of these texts. The reader will only gain new and diffrent unique insights from using contextual criticism while analyzing passages of these texts. After analyzing the context of the texts it will give any reader the most accurate and genuine interpretation of the story and truly allow them to experience the story in another
In contrast, Freud placed much emphasis on the sexual origins in his patients’ personalities and was unwilling to consider any other viewpoints. Continuing with his own argument he published The Interpretation of Dreams, to explain his theory regarding the Oedipus Complex and “pyschosexual development” (McLeod). Each of their theories are much alike from the fact that Jung studied under Freud for a period of time before breaking off to create his own brand based off of their disagreement of dream interpretation. However, these two scientists have
They believed that the literary text can be understood entirely by understanding its form. Other than the formal elements discussed previously, linguistic devices of paradox, irony, ambiguity, and tension form a more figurative language that
Sigmund Freud’s Structural Theory of Personality explains the relationship between behaviour and the three components of the mind: the Id, Ego and Superego. The Id represents the instincts with which one is born. The Id does not involve realistic thinking or the use of logic since one would do anything to have immediate satisfaction of his/her wants, needs or passions, such as stealing to satiate desires. However, the Ego is the use of logic and rational thinking that has been gained from observation of the outside world to influence behaviour. It is the part of the mind that assists in delaying or using an alternative mean to satisfy the Id’s demands in order to avoid the negative repercussions of society.
In 1923, Sigmund Freud proposed his theory that the make-up of an individual’s personality is largely governed by three fundamental components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Working through the unconscious and shaping behavior according to psychological fixations and conflicts or lack thereof, these elements evolve through five levels of psychosexual development (Freud, 1962). However, in spite of its compelling approach to the phenomenon, Freud’s structural theory of personality is riddled with limitations and as such, is subject to much criticism. The mind is layered into three states: the conscious, referring to the thoughts currently in our forefront; the preconscious, idle thoughts that can be easily accessed and brought to the conscious; and the unconscious, which houses the more instinctual drives that are repressed because it threatens the conscious’ equilibrium (Cloninger, 1996). Freud argues that the unconscious molds the personality as it accommodates the id, the ego, and superego (Freud, 1962).
Psychoanalytic theory is a standout amongst the most well-known treatment modalities, however it is additionally a standout amongst the most misconstrued by mental wellbeing buyers. This sort of treatment is based upon the speculations and work of Sigmund Freud, who established the school of thought known as psychoanalysis (Cherry, 2014).Psychoanalysis is defined as an approach to examine the depth of one’s personality (Corey, 2013). The key concepts of psychoanalytic theory are the view of human nature, structure of personality, consciousness and the unconscious, anxiety and ego-defence mechanisms (Corey, 2013).These next few paragraphs will highlight these concepts. The viewpoint of human nature by Freud is deterministic. Freud accepts
(Linden, 2011). The father of psychoanalysis, a great Neurologist, Sigmund Freud, categorized our minds into 3 major parts: The Id, The ego and the superego. The ego is our conscious self, the us that we are aware of. The superego is a consciousness that keeps our Id suppressed. Our Id, which is suppressed, consists of our primal instincts, impulses, desires, unchecked urges, thoughts and ideas and emotions.
Freud then theorized that the amount of strain experienced while enduring this process was correlated to the importance of the repressed material. In addition to this theory, Freud believes that the most strongly repressed memories and thoughts are sexually related. The psychologist stated that struggle between these taboos the and psychological mechanisms defending them were the reasons for many psychological disorders including anxiety, paranoia, narcissism, and more (Manger). Then in 1896 after the term “psychoanalysis” was coined, Freud started to explore the female and male sexuality, and developed his theory of
According to this theory, the book, movie, or other creative works were not simply accepted by the audience or the readers as in the case of books but they also interpreted the meaning of the texts based on their own cultural background and experiences. Hence, the meaning was not only on the text but on the connection between the text and the reader. Connecting this theory to the study, the reader in this theory referred to the respondents of the study; the EFR 2 – 3 students of the Institute of Education of Far Eastern University. The reading interests of the respondents were reflected and from there, it would be the basis in selecting supplementary reading materials in