This is the mindset that permeates both Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest and Henrik Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler. Both plays, having been written at the end of the 19th century, offer insight into how this societal pressure creates an environment in which women face a particularly large amount of pressure to find wealthy, suitable husbands rather than ones they truly love. This issue of marriage being classified as business is best summed up in The Importance of Being Earnest when Algy, after having learned Jack intends to propose to Gwendolyn, remarks, “I thought you had come up for pleasure…? I call that business” (Wilde
“To the Ladies”, written by Lady Mary Chudleigh, is a poem that expresses feminism, and gives women a taste of how they would be treated in a marriage. Chudleigh displays this poem as a warning to women who are not married yet, as she regrets getting married. She uses such words that compares to slavery, and negative attitudes toward future wives to warn them. Back in this time period when the poem was published in 1703, women were known as property of men and you won’t have an opinion or a say so. The poem expresses a life of a naïve woman, who is bound to marriage by God, and she cannot break the nuptial contract.
Works by Dr. Samuel Jennings show the extent to which the rights of women were restricted in American society. In “The Married Lady’s Companion”, Jennings speaks directly to the wife and informs her of how she must behave around her husband. His suggestions range from “…you ought to cultivate a cheerful and happy submission…” to “As you regard your own bliss, speedily check all thoughts of this kind… If indulged, they will have bainful effect upon your temper,” (Jennings). The first suggests that women must accept their subservience to men, and the second furthers this claim by informing women that their pursuit of happiness would only worsen their attitude. Jennings goes on to say that this attitude would cause husbands to be driven away from their wives, which only supports the idea that women were there to serve their husbands.
From this perspective, Ezinma’s character is used to show the emotional side of Okonkwo and his ‘manhood’. Chielo, on the other hand, is portrayed as both a normal woman and a priestess of the Oracle. In her normal life, Chielo is a widow, which, according to Stratton, gives her a sense of freedom from any kind of ‘male hierarchy’ over her (Stratton, 1994: 25). Beside this, Chielo is a representation of the duality in the spiritual world, as mentioned earlier in the Dogon’s mythology. The gods and goddess presented in Things Fall Apart are based on the notion of the duality of gender.
In the novel In the Time of the Butterflies, Julia Alvarez uses Minerva and Dede to discuss gender roles because both the characters of Minerva and Dede respond to gender roles in completely different ways. To begin, once the challenges of Trujillo become more intense, Dede finds herself unable to handle it, “She shuts her eyes tight and wished blindly that everything would turn out all right” (pg. 78). This statement is important because it illustrates the gender roles women should take on throughout the novel. Specifically, this quotation shows how Dede hopes for her husband find a solution to the issue at hand, as she closes her eyes instead of facing the problem.
Though she feels guilty about beating her children, she cannot help beating them again. So she tries to justify herself: “perhaps it was having no money or may be it was Cholly,” but they “sure worried the life out of me” (124). Her children’s daily needs become lighted matches to the fuse of her disappointment as a black woman denied beauty and romantic love. Wade- Gayles says, “the notion of motherhood as a sacred calling lived out in Sistine tranquility is a rhetorical lie in Pauline’s culture” (72). Morrison destroys the stereotypical image of the strong, loving black mother through
Housewife In her article "Motherhood/Paradise Lost (Domestic Division)", Terry Martin Hekker, a housewife who had been married to John Hekker, her husband, discusses the drawbacks of housewife as an occupation for women by sharing with the public her experience as a housewife in two different situations and centuries. The article aims to inform other women that depending on housewife as an occupation is really bad for their future. Hekker’s article is a good advice for today’s mothers as it is based on real experience. Hekker explains in her article that housewife is a good occupation, but there must be alternative jobs as it is not a permanent occupation. In her article "Motherhood", which was written in 1977, Hekker tries to illustrate that housewife is unique occupation although this job was considered shameful at time
She supported the belief that motherhood in itself was not derogatory or damaging. But when women do not acquire proper formal education, because of then duty as mother or wives then they suffer from loss of self-esteem and dignity. Wollstonecraft states that women should not sacrifice themselves at the altar of motherhood. Wollstonecraft says, “To be a mother a woman must have sense, and that independence of mind which few woman possess, who are taught to depend entirely on their husbands. Such wives are foolish mothers”(106).
Nonetheless, in the last some portion of the eighteenth century – unquestionably in Jane Austen's England – radical changes in states of mind toward marriage were happening. Marriage was coming to be viewed as a lifetime, private, glad camaraderie based upon affection, regard, and similarity, and both woman and man were to have voice in picking the mate. As positive as this new state of mind appears to be, on the other hand, the woman was still subordinate to her spouse lawfully and monetarily, and now as Rogers accentuates, the woman was further bound to her spouse by affection too. All through Pride and Prejudice, Elizabeth Bennett has been a consistent tenacious identity. She has possessed the capacity to talk with a scope of individuals from middle class to the refined easily with a feeling of wittiness.
In Charlotte Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” focuses on an unnamed female protagonist that suffers from “temporary nervous depression” that her husband, who is her primary doctor, treats her illness with the resting cure. Which does not allow her to do any activities that could overwork her or her mind leading her to keep a secret journal about her true feelings and motives? Gilman skillfully uses of tone, style, theme, and symbol conveyed a feminist ideal, presenting a first-wave feminism masterpiece. The understanding of the tone of a story gives readers a particular message of what the author feels about the subject. The tone of a story can be closely linked to the style of the story, Gilman has the narrator 's tone as passive, disturbed, paranoid, and intimate.
Wendy Williams questions the difference between men and women and explains the crisis we face when dealing with equality. Williams explains that past cases have made it easy for feminist, so much so, that now they are trying to cope with the issues that have come from these laws and how that attributes to the equality crisis. Williams illustrates the way the Supreme Court defines equality in regards to the separate spheres ideology. Separate spheres became the basis for governing women. In regards to marriage women would be seen as civilly dead in the eyes of the law, as her rights were merged with her husband.