Eugenics is centered on the fact that man should control his own evolution process, and this is brought about by the state deciding who is granted the right or ability to procreate. This basis also means the state decides which member of the species should lie and which members should die. Social Darwinism, coined in the later part of the 19th century, describes the idea that all humans are mandated to compete in a never ending struggle for existence and relevance. This struggle is determined or controlled by a natural selection process. It originated in Britain and was associated most with by the Englishman Herbert Spencer.
Political philosophy tends to provide us with ‘ought to be’ propositions and according to Pareto (cite), ‘ought’ propositions ‘do not correspond to any concrete reality’. The scientific study of politics started with the shift from normative approach to an empirical approach. Positivists stated that the highest form of human knowledge is scientific knowledge (Strauss, year). And this only implies the downturn of the pre-scientific knowledge. Scholars of political thought therefore adopted the methods of the natural sciences that put political analysis in a scientific way where deductive and logical methods were replaced by inductive and precise methods (Gettel, 1914).
It was made more educated Europeans to increase the acceptance of the scientific views on the physical world. Furthermore, the enlightenment was challenged the existed of religious and traditional thoughts patterns. The thought of Enlightenment thinkers and Religious thinkers was absolutely different. Deists think that God was the creator of the world, the natural world was created and controlled by the god. On the other hand, the philosophes emphasis on the rational and scientific methods, also in opposition to the religious concept.
Similar to other dystopian novels such as George Orwell’s 1984, Ayn Rand’s Anthem paints a grim picture of a collectivist world fraught with terror and oppression. Yet Rand’s vision stands in stark contrast to those that shape most portrayals of dystopias that boast technological and scientific prowess. Technology in 1984 is sophisticated and used to enforce thought control over the masses. This chronology is reversed in Anthem, where prohibition of free thinking creates a medieval, technologically backward society. Inversely, independent thought and action set the conditions for scientific and technological development, ultimately revealing the nature of science.
SCIENTIFIC EPISTEMOLOGY AND CONSCIOUSNESS SHREY JAIN AAA0511 THOMAS KUHN’S IDEA OF PARADIGM SHIFT In his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn defines paradigm shift as, A change in the basic assumptions, or paradigms, within the ruling theory of science. Once a paradigm shift occurs, the prior knowledge known to a scientist is rendered obsolete, and he/she is forced to adapt to the new concepts. As a result of the paradigm shift a change in consciousness of a person is achieved. Other than groundbreaking scientific discoveries, I believe that paradigm shift can be used to describe anthropological as well as sociological discoveries and changes that have occurred overtime, and are related to the consciousness of human beings. The shift from the belief of Adam and Eve being the first man and woman created by God, to the Darwinian Theory of Evolution, can be described as paradigm altering.
Positivism, the philosophical theory that appeared as a product of the Enlightenment period in the early nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century which main aim is to use a scientific method to study social sciences by observation with objective standards, rather than biased mindset standard based on questioning. It started by August Comte who denied all the existence of theoretical entities and believed that causality was not reducible to observation and, every individual science has unique features, just like social process. His idea influenced many thinkers and the concept of positivism started to develop by the time. Herbert Spencer is one of the early philosophers of positivism who was interested in making the study of psychology
Critics may raise a question here that replacing many states with one state is merely exposing the world population from a smaller menace to a larger one, but behold, this is not a Nation-State made up of groups of people living together in a close proximity for economics and culture. In fact, it will be the state that will comprise seven continents and all the people of the Earth. Moreover, since all the people of the world in this case will be living in the same country, there will be no need of military expenditures; instead, there will be internal policing. By recognizing the atrocities of the dreadful venom of the nation-state, people of the world should strive together for the creation of the Republic of Earth with zero military expenditure. A Republic where the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Canada, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Russia, Libya, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Qatar, China, United States, Angola, Algeria and Brazil will be the collective property of the inhabitants of the Earth.
Kuhn saw revolutions as paradigm shifts in the society. “A Paradigm is made up of the general theoretical assumptions and laws and the techniques for their application that the members of a particular scientific community adopt.” A paradigm is characterized by what he calls a period of normal science. With the course of time, problems begin to accumulate and there comes a time when the existing knowledge is not able to answer the questions raised by science. This is the point of crisis and is followed by a revolution. The characteristic of a revolution is that it leads to a paradigm shift.
Durkheim – he was a sociologist social psychologist and philosopher. He was born on 15 April 1858. He is also known a the father of sociology. He was concerned wih how societies could maintain their integrity in modern era where traditional values could have any value. He helped I the establishment on sociology as a new academic deciplain ,he also wrote about the effect of laws religion education forces on social integration and last with the practical implication of scientific knowledge.
Introduction; Public administration has been in practice since the dawn of human civilization but it is nascent as an academic field. It constitutes the government machinery and is supposed to implement policies formulated in response to public aspirations and needs. The success of governments, therefore, depends to a greater extent on how public administration effectively and efficiently meets the changing demands of the society. The emergence of public administration as a field of scientific inquiry began with the seminal article of Woodrow Wilson titled, “the study of administration”. He argued that it is difficult to run modern complex governments without knowledge and strongly advocated politics-administration dichotomy.