Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Essay

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In the history of nose and sinus surgery, Sinus surgery has been performed in one or another forms for over 100 years. However Functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been practiced widely only in the last 2 decades.19 Sinus surgery emerged in Egypt where brain was removed through ethmoid sinuses by instruments as part of mummification process. In 18th century, maxillary sinus empyema was drained through the tooth socket or anterior wall of the maxillary sinus which lead to the development of radical procedures of removal of mucous membrane and inferior meatal antrostomy20. Later on the field of Science and technology rapidly advanced and Functional endoscopic sinus surgery has revolutionized surgical care and new horizons opened in the management of Sinonasal diseases. Sushruta designed tubular nasal speculum called Netiyantra. Following Sushrutas “Netiyantra” to examine the nose, Pere Dionis described first nasal speculum in 1714. He also tried to explain the origin of nasal polyp by examining nasal polypi. The search to look into the nose and especially into the sinuses continued with Wertheim in 1896 who designed a “conchoscope” to see deeper into the middle meatus. Gustav Killian became more concerned to look further into the nasal cavity
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This was followed by Reichert who performed the first endonasal sinus surgery with a 7-mm endoscope for closure of oroantral fistulas in 1910. Maltz in 1925 promoted the use of nasal endoscopes for diagnostic assessment of the sinonasal cavity and formulated the term sinuscopy explaining visualizing methods for the maxillary sinus by placing endoscopes through the canine fossa or inferior meatus.23 In
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