Therefore, some translations will do a thought-for-thought transliteration into the idea of English, not the words. In this case, some of the technical details will be sacrificed for a clearer understanding of the original text. Others, however, may do a more literal translation and the meaning may be lost unless you are familiar with the cultural specifics of certain phrases. Various translations fall along this later spectrum, going from wooden literal translations to paraphrasing. Let us use Romans 12:20 as an example of how the different translations philosophies work.
Nevertheless, the lyrics in Cantopop could be mainly divided into two main groups: literature form and colloquial style. These two identical types of lyric survived simultaneously in the blooming market of Cantopop. Cantonese and lyrics had helped to diversify the composition of Cantopop. Sam Hui, who is considered to be the most important person to promote Cantopop, started his career in performing popular English songs. Later, he changed to sing Cantonese songs with street and contemporary lyrics.
Throughout the article, the writer refers to the same problem that grammar has to be based on the use of the language rather than on the definite variety of it. For example, he repeats the idea that “a certain practice is a rule of grammar because it’s how we see and hear people use the language” without providing strong support for it from the scientific studies or others' ideas. The same problem concerns the claim “But it is not possible for everyone, or the majority ... to be wrong on the same point at the same time”, even though it seems rather logical. Moreover, it seems that the appeal to the reader's emotions is the strongest from all rhetorical appeals, which make the article seem rather subjective. The author allows himself to use the emotionally-painted words and phrases.
Chapter Five: 5.1.Conclusion The preceding chapters of this study have looked into the efforts exerted by the translator to overcome the cultural difficulties when trying to decode, and then encode, the culture-bound words and expressions. The previous part of the study has intended to clarify the reasons why there are significant benefits when adopting an insider/emic approach to fingering out the intended meaning. The reason for choosing Basrayatha is that it is full of many cultural meanings that do not have cultural equivalents in the TT. This approach, insider vs. outsider, brings Basra culture, closer to the Western reader. The approach is a technique which consists of a broad understanding of the ST culture before language.
In the first chapter of his book “The Invisibility of Translator”, Lawrence Venuti deals with the term “invisibility”. He examines how the translator becomes invisible, the consequences of it for the translator and translation, and also how translators can avoid being invisible. Venuti’s work is important for examining translators’ situation in society. For the same reason, I found it really interesting and helpful. However, there are also some points that I do not agree with Venuti.
What is divergence? Divergence in translation arises when the sentences in source language are realized in a different manner in the target language. It is necessary to understand how different linguistic and extra linguistic constraints play decisive roles in translation resulting in divergences and other issues. Proper identification and understanding these problems are important in both manual and machine translation. Moreover, resolution of such problems is a pre-requisite for generating good translation in target language.
Summary This paper aims at studying the factors that affecting the gap between translation theory and practice. Only by studying (the focus of this paper), analyzing and evaluating those factors will be possible controlling the gap between practical and theoretical translation. Translation has been playing an indispensable role in transferring messages across languages despite cultural barriers. The importance of precise translation relies behind melting the barriers among civilizations to show the faces of both similarities and differences. Additionally, translation helps in developing cross-cultural integrative skills.
Thus, the translator follows using the grammatical and cultural features of the ST. It would be more or less literal translation. For intense, It is not consistent with the principle of etiquette, the hierarchy of authority, the good rule of prince. Also, a fundamental issue in translation Arabic classical literature is the issue of time and place. For example, the معلقة لبيد, it seems that is hard to create the same effect on the TL audience and foremost to the native.
Another scholar who supported this theory was John Catford who thought of translation as "the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent material in another language" (20). As can be seen from these two definitions, proponents of the theory of equivalence regarded the source and target languages as being equivalent on some level; the absence of some kind of equivalence between the source and the target text meant that the target text was not a translation but rather a kind of adaptation. Equivalence was seen as the most important criterion to judge whether the translation was successful or not (Du 2190). These first
This new perspective on the study of translation challenges the current traditional way of thinking by investigating translation as a social and cultural practice. By abandoning the conventional ideas of fidelity, equivalence and correspondence as the exclusive determinants of textual production and representation “[t]ranslators are told that in order to do their work correctly they must understand the culture of the original text, that texts are ‘embedded’ in a culture.” (Simon, 1996: 130) Translation is no longer considered a simple transfer of a source text into a target text, but rather a procedure tightly dependent on the factors through which a textual production occurs, as well as the factors regarding the social, racial, political and cultural background of the translator. Bassnett (2005: 398) reinforces the argument of translation being far more than a simple activity by stating