It should take into account the seasonal variation in production and demand. 6.Pricing according to the use of milk This practice is followed mainly for milk products. Milk procurement for a specialized dairy product such as cheese requires selection of raw milk by avoiding mastitis, colostrum, late lactation, and antibiotic-free milks. The milk should be free from detergents, sanitizers, pesticides, insecticides, aflatoxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals and even off-flavors. 7.Two-axis pricing of milk Liquid milk plants have a differential pricing system for flush and lean months based on the fat and SNF content of milk, with provision for the payment of a premium for a higher fat and SNF content than the specified standard.
The sterile medium was inoculated with known volume of inoculum and incubated at different temperatures (25, 30 and 350C) for different periods (48,72 and 96h) of fermentation. After fermentation the mouldy substrate was mixed with distilled water (1:4 w/v), agitated at through cheese cloth followed by centrifugation at 20,000 rpm for 20 minutes. The clear supernatant was used as crude enzyme. Assay of glucoamylase The assay of glucoamylase was carried out according to the method of Shazia Malik, Tehreema Iftikhar and Ikram Ul Haq13. One unit (U) of glucoamylase is defined as the amount that liberates 1 µmol of reducing sugar as glucose/ml/min under the assay condition.
Protein contain about 3.25% consists of several types of proteins that can be divided into two main groups; the groups include casein and whey or serum proteins and casein is the most 2.6% (ecoursesonline website). Lactose is the main carbohydrate of milk (ecoursesonline website). Mineral in cow’s milk have calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and
The former includes yogurt flavor analysis (taste/aroma compounds), milk constituents analysis (e.g., carbohy¬drates, fat, total nitrogen, free amino acids, proteins, and antibiotics), and assays for chemical indices (e.g., Zeta potential of casein micelles and enzymes activity). Structural analysis includes textural and rheological as well as microstructural analysis. Textural and rheological analysis is associated with the methods evaluating gel (set-type yogurt) and liquid (stirred-type yogurt) properties of yogurts. Microstructural analysis consists of two parts: microstructural images (studying detail structure) and microstructural assays (such as those obtained by EPS, exopolysaccarides secreted by bacteria, and those for the determination of the mean diameter of fat globules/particles). Yogurt is a typical non-Newtonian fluid, exhibiting a shear-thinning, yield stress, viscoelasticity, and thixotropic (time-dependency) flow behavior.
cremoris, S. lactis diacetyl lactis, Leuconostocs, are added and then the cream is ripened to pH 5.5 at 21oC and then to pH 4.6 at 13oC. Most flavour development occurs between pH 5.5 - 4.6. The colder the temperature during ripening the more the flavour development occurs relative to acid production. Ripened butter is usually not washed or salted. Ripening increases the percentage of diacetyl, the compound responsible for the flavour of butter.
Seven different types of culture media were prepared to subculture both inbred wild type and scarlet eye D. melanogaster. Among the seven types of culture media, five of it are adding different type of sugar in each banana medium whereas another two of media are the control media. Banana (Musa acuminata Colla)) medium was used as positive control while plain agar medium was used as a negative control in this experiment. Brand of Aldrich Chemistry of powder-type agar was used in the preparation of the culture media. For the step of preparing agar medium, first measured 100 mL of distilled water and boiled it around 50°C by the way also weighted 4.0 g of agar powder and added in the 50°C distilled water and let it fully dissolved.
The Galacturonic Acid content was low in all but one of the test samples. The highest Galacturonic Acid content of 71.1% was observed in pectin extracted from Pomegranate peels at pH of 1.5 and temperature of 1000C. IPPA20 stated that pectin for food use should contain at-least 65% Galacturonic acid units and hence the above sample can be considered as an alternative source of pectin in food industry. The galacturonic acid content in the sweet lime peels’ pectin from both samples (24-32%) is low in comparison to the findings of Zia-ur-Rehman and Abdul Majeed Salariya21 which might be a result of using lesser pH and higher temperatures of extractions in this
Several different formal schemes are used to classify cheeses. Cheeses may be grouped according to unique manufacturing or processing procedures, consistency or rheology (softness or hardness), country of origin, general appearance (size, shape, color), source of milk, and chemical analysis. Cheeses may be categorized according to manufacturing procedures such as the method by which the curd is formed (by acid and/or coagulating enzyme) or the ripening agent (bacteria, mold, yeast, unripened). However, only a few cheeses (blue, Camembert ,brick, Swiss) are characterized by distinctive ripening agents. Cheeses may also be classified according to rheology, or softness and hardness .
As in many of the seeds of other grain legumes, the protein is nutritionally inferior to that of the Standard Reference Protein (SFP), which approximates the average amino–acid profile of human proteins because it contains relatively small proportions of lysine, methionine and threonine, and sometimes isoleucine and valine (Pancholy;1958 p.103). As partic, glutanric acids and arginine constitute about 45 percent of the total amino-acids and their proportion is greater than in the SRP (Young; 2002). The proteins of groundnuts have certain unique functional properties, such as low viscosity at relatively high concentrations (5–10percent), good computability with biscuit batter system, white color and bland flavor. The mature kernel contains 20-25 percent carbohydrate, of which about 8–10 percent is cellulose and hemicelluloses, 4 percent is starch and 10 –12 percent is sugar (Patee; 1959:p.33). Sucrose is the principal sugar, varying from 2.86 – 6.35 percent depending on the cultivar.
The moisture content in dates varies according to date’s maturity stage. In early kimri stage it contains up to 85% moisture and dry dessert dates contains 5-10% moisture (Sahari et al., 2007). Almost 54.9 and 80.6g/100 g of carbohydrates are present in fresh and dried dates are respectively. Dried dates contain glucose, fructose and sucrose as 30.4, 29.4, and 11.6g/100g respectively (Al-Farsi et al., 2005; Ismail et al., 2006). The average protein content of fresh dates is 1.50g/100g while dried dates have 2.14g/100g protein contents (Al-Farsi and Lee, 2008;USDA, 2007).