Functional Turnover Case Study

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2.1. Turnover
Turnover happens when workers separate with their organizations (Mathis et al. 2010). Turnover is measured by dividing the number of employees leaving the organization in a year with the number of all employees at midyear (Mathis et al. 2010). Turnover begins with turnover intention, defined as a thought or desire to leave (Abelson, 1987).
Turnover can be classified into different types, according to the willingness to leave, the impact of the leaving, and whether the turnover is controllable or not (Mathis et al. 2010). Turnover can be voluntary or involuntary; voluntary turnover happens when one worker leaves by his choice and may be due to dissatisfaction, supervision, pay, geographical factors, or better career opportunities in other company, or personal and family issues; while the involuntary turnover occurs when the worker is terminated for his poor performance, excessive absenteeism, or rule violations.
According to the impact, turnover may be good or bad to the organization (Mathis et al. 2010). Functional turnover, or the
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2012). Organisational factors comprises organisational characteristics (such as hospital status or profitability), organisational climate or culture, and interpersonal relations within the organisation (such as relationship between colleagues in the hospital). Work-related factors include several factors which come from the job, including role-stress or conflict and ambiguity from the job, high workload, hazardous working condition, or financial rewards. Turnover may also be caused by factors coming from the employee himself, such as the demographic factors including gender, educational background, and age; as well as the employee’s attitude. External factors including personal conflict or opportunity from external job market can also cause

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