Functionalism has two senses which is the strong and weak sense. The weak sense is the approach that tries to relate the parts of society to the whole and relate one part to another. (Ritzer and Stepnisky, n.d.) This basically society is an arrangement of interconnected parts that cooperate in amicability to keep up a condition of adjust and social balance for the entirety. (Ritzer and Stepnisky, n.d.) The strong sense can be defined as an approach that is based on seeing society as analogous to biological organism and attempts to explain social structures in the terms of the needs of society as whole. This basically means the social structure of society needs to focus on society as a whole.
Mechanical solidarity is often present in more traditionalist, small-scale societies and is based on shared beliefs and values, whereas organic solidarity occurs in more advanced societies where individuals may have differing beliefs but are reliant on each other to perform specific tasks which will, in turn, benefit the society as an entirety. In this essay, I will outline how values and norms contribute to the concept of social solidarity. How do values contribute to social solidarity? The concept of values plays an important role in the make-up of societies, they are standards which indicate what is right and wrong. Young and Mack described values as "an assumption, largely unconscious, of what is right and important"(Young&Mack, 1959).
They makes us conform to the standards and ideologies that are reinforced in society. Ideology is part of a system of belief that a culture produces in order to function is a certain way. They are produced and affirmed through the social institutions in a given society Cavallaro (2001:76) says that ideology can be defined in 2 ways; neutrally, as ideas without political connotations; and critically, as ideas in which people categorise each other within a socio-historical and economic
A Critical Analysis and Application of the Functionalist Theory The functionalist perspective is based largely on the works of Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton. The idea of the perspective is quite simple. It is that, as the human body system works, the institutions in the society works interdependently for the proper functioning of the whole; the whole being the entire society. A number of key concepts underpin Functionalism. The primary concepts within Functionalism are collective conscience, value consensus, social order, education, family, crime and deviance and the media.
The sociological perspective is the study of human life and social interactions, it also studies how those interactions mould groups and society as a whole. A sociological perspective goes past the manifest and challenge what is accepted as common-sense. Since sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels, they come up with different perspectives to understand social life, social change and the social causes and consequences of human behaviour, each uniquely viewing society in their own way. In this paper we are going to look at the main sociological perspectives. Functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability .
Structuralism is worried with the general structure of society and the way social establishments go about as a limitation or breaking point and control singular conduct. Structuralism offers a perspective of the individual being controlled by the society they live in; Marx and Durkheim are comparative in that they can both be depicted as structuralisms, and however their individual thoughts are to some degree distinctive. Functionalism, the structural agreement sociological theory is a key theory that was produced by Emile Durkheim, one of the establishing fathers of sociology. This theory considers society to be a user structure of between related social foundations, for example, schools and the lawful framework that is in consistent agreement. Functionalists trust
Social Relations in Modern Societies Simmel defined society as a community of individuals that existed and prevails through the process of socialization where their interests shall motivate them to unite and come together (Adair-Toteff, 2005). In other words, an individual’s pursuance of self-interest requires one to interact with others that shaped the individual’s social self without compromising the individual’s unique disposition of autonomy (Applerouth & Edles, 2012). Here, Simmel’s approach on society emphasized the concept of duality and the different forms of interactions that took place during the pursuance of interests. For instance, the nature of job interview would often result in the applicant showcasing his achievements and potentials, differentiating himself from other applicants with hope to propel as someone that is valuable to the employer. In this case, the application of duality refers to the process of which the individual assumed his identity of capabilities while preserving his individuality for the employers to evaluate his job interview.
Functionalism Functionalism is one of the main theoretical perspectives in sociology. Functionalism sees society as a system them interconnects with each other in different ways in order to form or maintain a stable and balanced society. Everyone plays a role in society which makes it a whole. It sees the social structure and organisation of society as more important than an individual. One example is that education offers ways to develop the skills and knowledge of a person whereas politics governs the way people are in society.
Structural Functional Theory Structural functional theory is a macro sociological theory that is based on the characteristics of structures, social patterns, social systems and institutions such as education, religion, leisure, media, economy and politics. If all these social institutions are organized and co-operate with one another around a set of core values functionalist theorists assume that the entire social system will function properly and efficiently. Society in structural functional theory has a view that it is an organized system of interrelated parts that are held together by shared values and established social arrangements that help maintain the system to be in a state of balance and equilibrium. Structural functional theory is a broad perspective in sociology and anthropology which sets out to interpret society as a structure with interrelated parts. Functionalism addresses society as a whole in terms of the function of its constituent elements; namely norms, customs, traditions and institutions (Vibha Desai, 2013).
When policy actors act as social convenient specifies, individual simultaneously constitute themselves as social actors, in the sense of engaging in socially meaningful acts, and reinforce the convention to which they are complying. The main idea to this perspective is that action is tightly bound up with interpretation. Hence, sociological institutions insists that, when policy actors are discussing situations, the individual policy actor should find a way of recognizing it and responding to it considering the scripts, values, templates. Therefore, the relationship of the individual policy actor and the institution will be based on real reasoning. As a result, sociological institutionalism helps the policy actors in the policy adoption process.