We can see these subject matters crystal clear as sociology ranges from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture and from social stability to radical change in whole societies. Sociology of education is one of the specialized areas in sociology. The sociology of education has been important part of development of the discipline of sociology. In the context of sociology of education it can be define as the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcome. The word education itself proved that the aim of it is “to teach us how to think than what to think.” Sociology of education enable us to think critically about human social life and to keep asking questions concerning the sociological problems in education and understanding related concepts such as functions, progress, problems and the importance of good interaction between society and education systems.
Let’s start with talking about the different ways in which society can be studied. One way that society can be studied is a by a term known as macrosociology. Macrosociology is where things are a viewed on a large scale. With this way of studying, sociologists like to look at the way the society directly affects and individual. Functionalism and the Conflict Theory, two of the three theoretical perspectives we have discussed in previous chapters, are studied this way.
SOCIOLOGICAL SCHOOL Imp Theorist: Roscoe Pound, Montesquieu The sociological school of law is among the many theories that were framed by numerous scholars from time to time. The significance of individuals was proclaimed by theorists and scholars. The sociological school came about with the inevitability to stabilise and promote the welfare of the civilisation and the individual. There was an inclination towards socialization. Thus, the importance of the society should be measured in light of the individual and the importance of the individual should be considered in light of the society.
Symbolic Interactionism George Mead (1863-1931) George Herbert Mead is one of the key developers of the symbolic interactionism. This is a micro-level perspective based on self and society. It states that human behavior is influenced by meanings and definitions that are created through interactions with others in society. This is the ongoing use of a language and gestures in suspense to how the other will react in a conversation. Within the George Mead’s theory of Mind, Self and Society, he said that the self is made up of 2 components: the “me” represents expectations, attitudes and learnt behaviors of others in society.
Sociology is defined as the study of humans, societies and social groups within societies. It is also said to be the ‘science of society’. The subject of sociology tries to help us to understand why we act in certain ways and that what may come across as inevitable may perhaps be shaped and moulded by historical events and processes. It is important as it helps us gain knowledge of the world in which we live and why certain things happen within this world. Patterns may also develop from the study of sociology.
These are Macrosociology (Macro) and Microsociology (Micro). Macro sociology focus upon the social system while looking at society as a whole. It looks at how interactions within different types of social institutions, structures, economic system, and cultures impact upon the behaviour of individuals within society. Macro perspective can be divided into two focus areas, Conflict theory and Consensus theory which in turn allowed perspectives such as Functionalism and Marxism to explore how society changes and develops (Giddens and Sutton,
INTRODUCTION C. Wright Mills was a mid-century Activist, Journalist, and more importantly a Sociologist who was critical of intellectual sociology and believed sociologists should use their information to advocate for social change. Further, his writings particularly addressed the responsibilities of intellectuals in post World War II society and recommended relevance and engagement over unbiased academic observation. Well known for coining the phrase ‘power elite,’ a term he used to describe the people who ran a government or organization because of their wealth and social status. He was also known and celebrated for his critiques of contemporary power structures. Influenced by Marxist ideas and the theories of Max Weber, Mills was highly
One major perspective in sociology is functionalism, this theory believes that a society 's beliefs, behaviour and social structure, are interrelated and function as a means to achieve its common goals (Collins Dictionary 2018). Another is Marxism, which is based on the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-1883), that believes that society and human institutions are economically fixed, and stresses the importance of the struggle within classes (Brisbane 2015a). Each sociological perspective has views on behaviour, structure within society and institutions such as education, religion and the criminal system-some of which are comparable and others that are dissimilar. Functionalism is a consensus theory that stresses the idea that societies work best when their members agree on fundamental principles of how society should be ordered and share common beliefs, values and norms (Brisbane 2015a). One main theorist Durkheim (1858– 1917) argued that members of societies need to feel a sense of belonging to a larger community and a shared identity (Billingham 2015).
Functionalism INTRODUCTION Functionalism, also known as the functionalist perspective is one of the foremost theoretical perspectives in modern sociology. This perspective attributes its roots to the works of Emile Durkheim who devoted his life to the study of social order and social stability http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26837.html The functionalist perspective claims that society is more than just a collection of several parts, rather each part plays a certain role and contributes to whole of society, it states that social institutions form and persist due to the role they play in promoting societal stability and integration. https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/sociology-1/theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology-24/the-functionalist-perspective-155-3284/ Here in lies the key point, functionalism claims that each and every entity or structure in a society has a set function (hence the name) in the workings of society as a whole. http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-Theory/a/Functionalist-Theory.htm Robert Merton, another well-known sociologist, divided these functions into two type: manifest and latent. Manifest being the more obvious and intentional functions and latent being those which are less obvious.