Marx hoped for the de-legitimation of the Chinese state to lead to its dissolution and subsequently spark revolutions in England and Europe when their economic markets are affected . In both India and China, religion plays no part in advancing social change, and may even have stagnated the stadial progress of history. Instead, Marx attributes the dynamism throughout history to the desire for endless capital accumulation, which will motivate the development of the world market, facilitate
He clarifies it is dictator on the grounds that it is a mix of topics of conventional Toryism, for example, obligation, power, principles, along with country, with the forceful subjects of neo-progressivism, for example, aggressiveness, independence, and hostile to statism. He guarantees it is additionally populism because it prepared populist advances in opposition to high pay charges, wellbeing advantage dependents, along with deprived community administrations as though they were 'the foe of the general population' following the collapse of Keynesian political financial system. He observes this like a hegemonic venture – intentional, rational social building began by means of the economy, and then proceeded onward to other old foundations set up by the post-war
Kenneth Waltz attempted to explain a structural realist perspective about anarchic structure. He argues that due to the absence of a international governing body, states should actively pursue conflict in order to ensure their own survival. He goes on to use economic concepts to describe his viewpoint of the anarchical structure of international politics. He says, “The market arises out of the activities of separate units--persons and firms--whose aims and efforts are directed not toward creating order but rather fulfilling their own internally defined interests by whatever means they can muster”(Waltz, 52). This supports the realist argument that states operate based on self interest and, contrasting with Wendt, do not consider their identities within the international system.
The idea of socialism and communism may be slightly unrealistic and challenging to implement but in a utopian society, Marx’s view of the political structure is ideal. Arendt argues that there is no place for poverty in politics but Marx makes the point that poverty must be eliminated first so that politics can flourish. The only way to eliminate poverty is through the political system and the overthrow of the elite. As long as there is economic oppression, freedom is not attainable for every citizen. The separation of economics and freedom is unrealistic because money controls the actions of the people.
(Bowie 2013, 42) Therefore one could believe that the reason for why economics is a foe of ethics, is mainly because of the classical equilibrium economies, in which the economy is formed by the behaviours of individuals and firms. To expand, Bowie argues that the ideological "assumptions" which underpin equilibrium economics "obliterates ethics" (Bowie 2013, 32) However, Bowie's position is uncertain because he believes that the world of economics has moved past this theory of classic equilibrium
Rationalization is historical changes from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought (societies differ in how people think of world). For instance, is Industrial Capitalism as essence of rationality. Weber’s great thesis are Protestantism and Capitalism Emphasized about legal-rational legitimacy and charismatic legitimacy. He agreed with Marx that economic activity is central in modern industrialized society but emphasizes politics as most important factor. Glerhard Lenski however, was a sociologist known for his donation to the human science of religion, social imbalance between individuals, and presenting the environmental developmental hypothesis.
Idealists see the role of power as an undesirable factor to be eliminated. Idealists see realism as a set of assumptions about how and why states behave like they do, rather than a theory of foreign relations. They strongly criticise the realist thesis that the struggle for power and security is natural. They reject such a fatalistic orientation claiming that power is not natural, and simply a temporary phase of human history. They believe that by adhering completely and consciously to moral values moral values in behaviour, power struggle and war can be eliminated.
2.2.1 Constructivism Social Constructivism is one of international relations approach. This approach challenged the rationalism and positivism of neorealism and neoliberalism. One of constructivism character is its emphasis on the importance of normative as well as material structures, the role of identity in shaping political action and on the mutually constitutive relationship between agents and structures (Burchill et al. 2005: 188). The term “constructivism” was first introduced by Nicholas Onuf in his book World in Our Making.
Moreover, there is a prevailing inclination to believe that anything stepping outside of our definition of modernity does not develop towards the better, or is simply not capable of it. Eurocentrism has played a huge role in a number of Great Divergence analyses, and led to the European concept of Western modernity to be put at the core of its explanation. I believe this is the essential point that we must make when taking a critical approach of the differences between Western and Eastern economic development from the eighteenth century onwards. Because of the new inventions that came along with the First Industrial Revolution, agricultural labor started to be viewed as “inferior”, a thing of the past that was now predominant only in areas less developed than Europe. Note the instantaneous association between European industrial development and modernity.
Instead of new technology, the Modernist writer saw cold machinery and increased capitalism, which alienated the individual and led to loneliness. In fact, Modernism evolved as an artistic reaction to dramatic changes in politics, culture, society, and technology. In social context also, in science, there was a remarkable shift away from Newtonian science and toward Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Moreover, in the second half of the nineteenth century, Darwin had questioned the idea of Genesis, leading to the dilemma of faith and doubt. Similarly, Marx had debunked the idea of a man in God’s image by showing man as an economic being.