Nonetheless it is imperative while examining crime to consider various issues which bring up a few significant issues with respect to the way crime is seen in the society. Investigating inquiries, for example, who makes the tenets of society (laws) and why, is imperative as any response to this inquiry is supported by examination on social power, political power, class distinction and the way crime is socially constructed. Social standards and values fluctuate fundamentally crosswise over diverse societies, religions and social orders. Despite the fact that it can be said that when these social norms are upset, the "breaking" of social "principles" can be unlawful, in which case it turns into a demonstration of crime, it is likewise essential to separate in the middle of crime and deviance which both incorporate the violation of social standards (Akçomak and ter Weel,
By moral boundaries, Durkheim referred to a groups ideas on how people should think and act. Deviance challenges these boundaries. “To call member into account is to say in effect, “You broke an important rule, we cannot tolerate that (pg. 172).” Punishing deviant affirms wishing the group, clarifies what it mean to be a member of the
The word victimization is a noun and there are two meanings that Jennifer Truman described in her article, “an act that exploits or victimizes someone” and “adversity resulting from being made a victim”. The first one is the victim precipitation theory, secondly is the lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and last but not least is routine activity theory. The victim precipitation theory shows victimology from the position that the victims themselves may actually begin, either passively or actively; the criminal act finally leads to injury or death. The second theory is the lifestyle theory. This theory intent that individuals are targeted based on their lifestyle choices, and that these lifestyle choices expose them to criminal offenders, and situations in which crimes may be committed.
When LT was introduced it focussed on the criminalisation process, rather than what was done previously, focussing on characteristics of the-individual and their surrounding environment (Davis, 1972). The theory assumes that societies reaction to labelling leads to-stigmatisation, and ultimately altering identity (Davis, 1972). Furthermore, the core argument evolving from this is that once a deviant act is committed (primary deviant), they are-labelled-negatively as a criminal, and therefore this label becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy as the individual would become the person they are seen, rather than who they are (Scimecca,
Unlike theories that are primarily concerned with preventing future offenses This theory of sentencing lessens the emotional component of revenge by claiming that criminal acts are deserving of punishment, that offenders morally blameworthy and that they must be punished (Schmalleger & Smykla, 2007). Advocates of this theory state that punishment should be proportionate to the seriousness of the offense committed. In this way desert restores the moral balance to a society wronged by crime. Andrew von Hirsch, a leading proponent of the just deserts model identified the rationales underlying criminal punishment says that when someone “infringes on the rights of others, he deserves blame and that is why the sanctioning authority is entitled to choose a response that expresses moral disapproval namely punishment”. From a desert point of view justice requires that punishment be imposed on offenders of
A proponent of structural functionalism would say mass incarceration is meeting a social need. It is a tool used to keep “the body” of society functioning properly. Durkheim suggests that crime and punishment serve a function in society like a social fact and that it helps maintain societies moral balance. Structural functionalist would believe in incarceration as a key element in maintaining an equilibrium in society. A proponent of conflict theory would see mass incarceration as another blatant example of class warfare.
Labeling theory focuses on the stigmatization that can be associated with a criminal offender. The offender brought to be defined by the community after it is made aware of the person’s criminality. Also, the offender is also psychologically inclined to view himself in a negative manner once he has been penalized for breaking the law. Labeling theory is a form of social reaction theory, which places an emphasis on the social pressure that is held against a person who exercises deviant behavior. Some contributors to the field of labeling theory are John Braithwaite, Howard Becker, Edwin Lemert, Dina Rose, Todd Clear, and Lawrence Sherman.
Freud’s mechanism of projection shows that characters such as Nel and Sula use scapegoating to release their undesirable characteristics onto others. Displacement, shows how the community scapegoat Sula in order to use a more feasible target to alleviate themselves and their self-esteems from aggravations. Furthermore, the Social Identity Theory shows how Sula’s threat to the community’s norms and identity leads to her becoming vulnerable to outgroup scapegoating and, lastly, the Social Identity Theory also shows how the community use scapegoating as a means to uplift their status and
The social constructionism theory believes that individuals use categories to organise their understanding of the world. A social construct is understood to be a concept that society creates and then they organise their thoughts and behaviours around it. It could be argued that disability is a socially constructed problem in society. This essay will discuss in more detail what social construction means by drawing on relevant concepts. It will examine how disability became a socially constructed problem in modern society.