Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemistry, Water, And Ph

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Chapter 2 Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemistry, Water, and pH 1. Cells that make up complex living things do what they do because of a chemical reaction 2. Repulsion & bonding, latching on & re-forming, depositing & breaking down what makes people plants and birds function at this level is chemistry 2.1 Chemistry’s Building Block: The Atom 1. Matter could defined as anything that takes up space and has a mass 2. Mass it’s a measure of matter in any given object 3. Atom are composed of tiny pieces of matter composed of constituent parts A: Protons. Neutrons and Electrons 1. Protons (positive charge) combined to form an atom 2. Neutron (no charge) combined to form an atom 3. Electrons (negative charge) combined to form an atom 4. Protons…show more content…
2 electrons are required to fill the first energy level (or shell) of any given atom, but 8 are required to fill all the levels thereafter (in most of the elements that make up the living world). A. Chemical Bonding in One Instance: Water 1. Covalent bond is a chemical bond in which atoms share a pair of electrons 2. The law of conservation of mass states that the matter is not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction B. What is Molecule 1. Molecule is an entity consisting of a defined number of atoms covalently bonded together C: Covalent Polar and Nonpolar Bonding 1. Electronegativity power to attract electrons to itself 2. Polarity shared electrons get pull away difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other end 2.3 The Ionic Bond 1. Ionic bonding when the electronegativity differences between 2 atoms were so extreme that the electrons were pulled off 1 atom only to latch on to the atom that was attracting them A: What is an Ion? 1. Ion is a changed atom or an atom with the number of electrons different from it number of protons 2. Ionic bonding is the chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of its opposite charge 3. Ionic compound is a collection of atoms of 2 or more elements that have become lined through ionic bonding 2.4 The Hydrogen…show more content…
Solution is a mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules or atoms or ions that is homogenous (meaning uniform throughout) 2. Solute is what is being dissolved 3. Solvent is doing the dissolving B: Water’s Unusual Properties 1. Moderating Temperature: Specific Heat A. Specific Heat is the amount of energy required to rise the temperature of a substance 1 Celsius degree C: Hydrophobic & Hydrophilic Molecules 1. Hydrocarbons made up of solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms 2. Hydrophilic is water loving and are compounds that will interact with water 3. Hydrophobic is water fearing and compounds that do not interact with water 2.7 Acids and Bases 1. Acid is any substance that yields hydrogen ions when put in water solutions 2. Base is any substance that accepts hydrogen ions in water solutions A: Ranking Substance on the pH Scale 1. pH Scale is the scale used by scientist measuring the relative acidity of a substance B: Some pH Terminology 1. When a solution becomes more basic, the pH rises. Therefore the higher the pH, the more basic the solution: the lower the pH, the more acid in the solution. Oven cleaner is said to have high pH balance while lemon juice has a low pH

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