The chloride ion is more polar since it is above bromine on the periodic table and is more prone to hydrogen bonding due to its smaller size. Chloride ions are worse than bromine ions for nucleophilic attack, because the chloride ions are fully solvated and are not as available to attack. This is why Bromine ion is better nucleophile because is less electronegative and is willing to give up electrons. 3. What is the principal organic by-product of these two reactions?
(see table #2) The mixture with the bean water caused the solution to not be as concentrated, limiting the amount of oligosaccharides that the alpha galactosidase can break down, therefore resulting in a small amount of glucose concentration. The highest stand standard deviation is at 4 mL of alpha galactosidase, which is 185.742. The lowest standard deviation is at 0 mL and 1 mL of alpha galactosidase, which is 0. Since error bars are not all overlapping, it shows that there was a significant difference (see figure #3). However, the R squared value is 0.929, meaning that it is close to fitting the line of best fit.
This low percent recovery is because some of the solutions spilled onto the table, losing a lot of the precipitate. The recovered ethyl-4-aminobenzoate’s boiling point was within the accepted range of 85C; meaning, the amount recovered was pure. The % recovery for the benzoic acid was 5.33%. This low percent recovery could be due to the fact that instead of adding NaCl to increase the precipitate amount, the salting out effect, more of the HCl was used. This caused the precipitate amount to increase slightly but not as much as it could’ve if the salting out effect was used.
WHITE BLOODWhite Blood™ is the most complete nitric oxide and transport enhancing formula around. This formula uses ethyl ester technology to enhance the delivery of the two key ingredients -- arginine ethyl ester di-hcl (AEE) and ornithine ethyl ester di-hcl (OEE). These two amino acids are bonded to an ester, which increases the absorbability of both compounds. Esters are formed by a reaction between carboxylic acid and alcohol. The problem with most first-generation nitric oxide enhancers is that they degrade severely when ingested and do not reach their target to perform their duty.
This could have been because it was more sterically hinder since the carbonyl group was connected to a primary carbon. The third ester which reacted was ethyl butanoate since it was a bit more sterically hinder than the ethyl acetate because the carbonyl group was connected to a secondary carbon. Both ethyl acetate and ethyl butanoate had electronic factors of being electron donating making the carbonyls less reactive so the order depended more on the steric factor. The slowest ester to react was the ethyl benzoate because of the greater steric hindrance since the carbonyl was connected to a benzene ring which making it hard for the nucleophile to attack. The carbonyl was directly connected to a tertiary carbon, but that was also in a ring.
Theoritically, as the concentration of sodium alginate increases, the diffusion ability of the substrate into the beads will be decreased. This is because to more cross-linking at higher concentrations with more calcium binding sites. That is the reason why beads at high concentration appear bright white in color. At lowest concentration of sodium alginate, immobilization effectiveness will be higher. However, the gel at lowest concentration cannot withstand wear tear and very fragile.
The solution that have a molarity of 0, cause the object to be isotonic. If the temperature of the glucose solutions that had different molarities increased, the reaction of the potatoes weight would have happened faster. And vice versa, if the temperature of the glucose solutions that had different molarities decreased, then the reaction of the potatoes weight would have happened slower. If someone used animal cells instead of plant cells in this experiment, nothing would change because the only difference between plant cells and animal cells is the cytoplasm which has nothing to do with the experiment. A solution that is five percent glucose would be isotonic compared to red blood cells.
This is due to the boiling points of the two compounds are too close for an effective simple distillation. A simple distillation only works when the boiling points of the two compounds are separated by at least 50 °C (CITATION). Meanwhile, the boiling points of the compounds of the mixtures are 82.3 °C for 2-pronanol and 117 °C for 1-butanol (National Center for Biotechnology Information). As well, while fractional distillation is more difficult due to the added fractionating column and insulation, it allows for better separation and condensation of the individual compounds. This ensures that only the compound with the lower boiling point is completely condensed before the compound with the higher boiling point begins to condense.
Although biodegradation of hydrocarbons can happen in a wide range of temperatures, biodegradation rate generally decreases with decreasing temperature (26). So in this study, the lowest rate of biodegradation was observed at lowest temperature. This is due to the fact that at low temperatures, the viscosity of the oil is increased while the volatilization of toxic short-chain alkanes is reduced, and its water solubility is decreased, thereby delaying the onset of biodegradation
The difference between diluted and concentrated acid is the ratio of acid molecules to water molecules within the solution. In diluted acids, there are lesser acid molecules relative to water molecules, and vice versa for concentrated acids. However, diluted acids will disassociate into H+ ions more readily than concentrated acids, where as concentrated acids will have acid molecules within the solution and not its ions in dissociated form, because water acts as an ionization medium for acid molecules (O’Leary, 2000). In addition, fewer ions within the solution means there are more space for solutes to occupy within the solution, thus, increasing the solubility of solutes within the solution and/or allow H+ ions within the solution to react with more solutes. These two factors can collectively contribute to the corrosiveness of an acid, therefore, diluted acids can cause greater corrosive damage to a substance as the presence of water molecules can aid the dissociation of acid molecules into its ions and there is greater capacity for solutes and H+ ions to