Diseases of the urinary tract blockages such as stones, tumors, and also causes narrowing of the kidney failure. Kidney failure can also be caused by autoimmune disorders, such as lupus erythematosus. Of the many types of disease-causing, most causes of diabetes mellitus. According to Budiman, 45 percent of sufferers of kidney failure caused by diabetes mellitus, 28 percent by high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis by 9 percent, and 18 percent of other
There are many causes of cirrhosis including chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases). Symptoms • Yellowing of the skin (jaundice) due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood • Fatigue • Weakness • Loss of appetite • Itching • Easy bruising from decreased production of blood clotting factors by the diseased liver Causes • Alcohol • Viral Hepatitis B & c Effects • If the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis
Class I is the minimal mesangial lupus nephritis and for patients who are classified under this usually are in remission. The worst class, Class VI (Advanced sclerosis lupus nephritis) is embodied by a gradual progressive kidney dysfunction. This complication is the one most scientists use for research as this affects the majority of Lupus patients. Other complications could include organs such as lungs, brain, intestines, and
Everyone with diabetes who is 12 years old or over is invited for screening once a year. The screening test involves examining the back of the eyes and taking photographs of the retina. Screening can detect diabetic retinopathy before one notice any changes in the vision. Causes Over the time, hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar content) causes blockage of the minute blood vessels that provide nourishment to the retina, thereby cutting off the blood supply. As a result, the eye attempts to grow new blood vessels.
Polyclonal B-cell hyperreactivity with abnormalities of autoregulation have been reported, the histopathologic substrate of Sjogren’s syndrome is characterized by presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in glandular and extraglandular sites. Microscopic examinations of enlarged parotid or submandibular glands reveal benign lymphoepithelial lesion, characterized by epimyoepithelial islands in a lymphocytic infiltrate with replacement of acini. In the minor salivary glands the characteristic feature is focal lymphocytic
(The abdomen consists of the lower part of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and bladder.) Pressure can come from coughing, vomiting, straining during a bowel movement, heavy lifting, or physical strain. Pregnancy, obesity, or extra fluid in the abdomen can also lead to a hiatal hernia. Who is at risk for developing a hiatal hernia? A hiatal hernia can develop in people of all ages and both sexes, although it frequently occurs in people age 50 and older.
HERNIA Introduction Hernia is an abnormal protrusion of internal organs through an abnormal opening in the wall of the cavity.A combination of increased pressure inside the body with weakness in the wall is responsible for this condition.In this condition internal organs or parts of organs are protruded out forming a swelling which will increase the size with coughing and lifting weight,and while passing stool and urine.In lying down position the swelling goes inside except in strangulated and irreducible hernia. Causes:- 1, Weakness in the body wall:-- a) Congenital weakness. b) Acquired weakness due to injuries,wasting of muscles,suppurative lesions in the wall and presence of weak natural openings,obesity,lack of exercise,repeated
There are different types of hernia, these includes, inguinal, umbilical, femoral, hiatus hernias, other types of hernia that can affect the abdomen are: - Incisional hernias which occurs when tissues pokes through a surgical wound in the abdomen that has not fully healed. - Epigastric hernia: these occurs when fatty tissues pokes through the abdomen between the navel and the lower part of the breastbone (sternum). - Spigelian hernias: these occurs when part of the bowel pushes through the abdomen at the side of the abdominal muscle, below the navel. - Diaphragmatic hernias: this is when organ in the abdomen moves into the chest cavity and push through an opening in the diaphragm. This can affect babies if their diaphragm does not develop properly during their foetal stage, but it can also affect adults.
It may bring about an ectopic pregnancy since the fallopian tube may be infected and the egg may stick to one of the cyst. The pain is felt in the lower two quadrants of the abdominal cavity. It is also felt within the vagina or rectum during the menstrual cycle. In many cases the person’s organs will no longer appear smooth and pink but have bloody lesions, black speckles and blood clots around the
However, some doctors consider infections of the urethra and prostate to be lower (Iman, 2016). Upper UTIs usually consist of diseases of the ureters, renal pelvis, and interstitium. The differences are that upper infections can lead to kidney failure, and lower UTIs result in necrosis. E. Coli and Staphylococcus cause the lower infections, whereas the upper infections are usually due to Proteus, E. Coli, and Pseudomonas. Lower UTIs have symptoms frequency, urgency, dysuria, back pain, hematuria, cloudy urine, and flank pain, whereas upper infections have signs of frequency, urgency, dysuria, costovertebral tenderness, and hypertension (Huether, 2012, p.
Be sure to rehydrate with not only water, but salts and minerals to. 4. Bloody Stool Bloody stools are a disconcerting symptom of Crohn’s disease. As the inflammation of the bowels cause ulcers, blood may mix with the stool. If the blood comes from high in the digestive process, the stool may appear black in color.
At times the spleen traps many cells that should be in the bloodstream and it grows large. This causes anemia. Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in young children. When the sickled cells get trapped in the lungs acute chest syndrome begins to occur. Stroke and eye problems also occur with sickle cell.
Acute Pyelonephritis: Acute pyelonephritis is considered an upper urinary tract infection. Acute pyelonephritis occurs due to the bacteria moving from the bladder up to the kidneys (Colgan, Williams, & Johnson, 2011). In pyelonephritis, approximately 60% of diagnosed cases are due to E.coli (Yodla et al., 2011). Classic symptoms of acute pyelonephritis include: fever, dysuria, and pain in lower back and/or groin area (Yodla et al., 2011). In the elderly, both respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms may also be present (Yodla et al., 2011).
Name: Hemolytic uremic syndrome Overview: The hemolytic uremic syndrome is a condition characterized by destruction of red blood cells and kidney failure and often follows an infection of the digestive system caused by Escherichia coli, but can also occur for other reasons. The hemolytic uremic syndrome is a disease that involves two processes and two body systems: o destruction of red blood cells o kidney failure As regards the first aspect, it happens that in hemolytic uremic syndrome the blood within the capillaries, the smallest blood vessels in the body, begins to coagulate in an abnormal way. When red blood cells pass through the capillaries clogged, they are punched from one side and broken. (Hemo-blood + lysis-destruction). The second