Gallstones Research Paper

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Gallstones
Introduction

Gallstones are pieces of solid material that form in the gallbladder. These stones develop because cholesterol and pigments in bile sometimes form hard particles. Gallstones form in the gallbladder a small organ located under the liver. The gallbladder aids in the digestive process by storing bile and secreting it into the small intestine when food enters. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver and is made up of several substances, including cholesterol, bilirubin and bile salts (WebMD. 2005-2015).The majority of gallstones remain in the bladder (cholelithias) and may show no symptoms (silent gallstones), it may be eventually be discovered during investigation or at autopsy. Impaction of a gallstone in the neck of the gallbladder results in gallbladder inflammation and the symptoms and signs of acute or chronic cholecystitis. (Summerfield, 2010). There two main types of gallstones, they are cholesterol stones: usually yellow-green in color, approximately 80% of gallstones are cholesterol stones. Pigment stones: These stones are smaller and darker and are made up of bilirubin. (WebMD. 2005-2015). Gallstones, their causes, incidence and prevalence,
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Obesity; one of the biggest risk factors. A rise in cholesterol due to obesity can keep the gallbladder from emptying completely. Estrogen; this can increase cholesterol and reduce gallbladder motility. People with higher levels of estrogen may be more likely to develop gallstones. For example women who are pregnant or who take birth control pills. Ethnic background; certain ethnic groups, including Native Americans and Mexican-Americans, are more likely to develop gallstones. Gender and age; Gallstones are more common among women and older people. Other factors are cholesterol drugs, diabetes, and rapid weight loss (WebMD.

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