A learning theory incorporates principles which aim at explaining changes in human performance, providing a set of instructional strategies, tactics, techniques to select from and the foundation for how and when to choose and integrate the strategies5. Learning theories offer insights into “what promotes learning effectiveness and how students learn”. Learning theories are based on principles that can guide effective teaching practice and facilitate deep versus surface learning”. Thus, to have the disposition that is required to be acquired by the learner, curriculum designers need to consider relevant and appropriate learning theories during curriculum design and implementation. The more learning theories are integrated in the curriculum design process; the more likely learners can be accommodated within the programme.
THE ROLE OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING IN TEACHING AND LEARNING. A general working definition of self-regulated learning is that it is an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features in the environment. These self-regulatory activities can mediate the relations between individuals and the context and their overall achievement. This definition is similar to other models of self-regulated learning (e.g., Zimmerman, 1989, 1998a, b; 2000). Self-regulated learning concerns the application of general models of regulation and self regulation to issues of learning
Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2006) indicate that “formative assessment can promote the development of capacities and attitudes used in lifelong learning. Assessment-centred or student-centred learning environments also emphasize congruence between learning goals and what is assessed”. Formative assessment is going on all an ideal opportunity to give feedback on what understudies are figuring out how to distinguish accomplishment and areas for further work. Additionally, for the educator or teachers to evaluate effectiveness of instructing or teaching and provide a feed forward or to centre feasible arrangements. “Good feedback practice is not only about providing accessible and usable information that helps students improve their learning, but it is also about providing good information to teachers” (Nicol and Macfarlane, 2006, p. 214).
That meant the instructor should select learning tasks that are worth learning and develop this content in ways that help students to appreciate their significance and application potential to analyze the students and identify learning styles, such as active or reflective students. These learning styles can be categorized with the relevance portion of Keller's ARCS model because they assist in matching a student's motives. The first subcategory in relevance strategies is goal orientation. Relevance strategies highlight how the students' previous experiences and skills can be used to help them understand, learn new concepts, and link to students' needs, interests, and motives. This strategy can help teach the concept of writing academic summaries, which are essential to incorporating sources in argument essays.
He brings out the importance of Language learning strategies in the classroom adopted by the learners. He further emphasises that these strategies would equip the learners and help them to communicate appropriately and also creatively. The major issue raised by the author on Language learning strategies thus finds a solution. The researcher ultimately concludes that Language learning strategies paves way to creative thinking which would enable the learner to be autonomous and constructive in the process of Language
Selecting and sequencing appropriate learning experiences wilt be facilitated if teachers understand how language develops in instructed settings. Language Pedagogy Promoting language growth can and should be done by content-based teachers, even those who work in settings where content, not language, is a primary program goal. Language learning can be planned as part of every content lesson, and teachers can use strategies drawn from language pedagogy to help students gain language skills. In fact, in doing so, they will further the goals of content instruction, since the better students know the language, the more easily they can learn content through it. Knowledge of Materials Development and Selection When students learn content through a new language they will need a variety of instructional materials.
It also creates the drive in them to acquire the targeted language, enjoy the learning process, and experience real communication. Moreover, three factors- self-confidence, experiencing success and satisfaction, and good teacher-learner relationships as well as relationships between learners- play essential role in developing language learners’ motivation. And also, in order to maintain motivation, the L2 instructors are to be familiar with demotivation factors- both internal and external attributions. They have a direct relation with students’ external attributions. Fortunately, it is possible for once-demotivated students to overcome their obstacles in
It implies learning through meta-cognitive, motivational, emotional and behavioral control. These different strategies include comprehension monitoring, persistence, diligence and control of impulses etc. Thus it becomes clear that self regulation is vital to the learning process as it helps learners create better learning habits, develop the study skills, use different learning strategies to increase positively academic outcomes, observe their performance and analyze finally their academic development. 1.2.1 ATTRIBUTES OF SELF REGULATED LEARNING The progress of self regulated learning is defined by the extent to which students control and regulate the different aspects of their thinking, motivation and behaviour during learning process. Different attributes of self regulated learning are: 184.108.40.206 Meta-cognitive Self-regulation The central aspect of self-regulated learning is meta-cognition that includes planning, monitoring, and regulating activities (Pintrich et al., 1991).
Given that teaching and learning approaches are the methods teachers will use to facilitate the learning process, Graveells (Gravells, 2014, p. 102) believes that these approaches – which should always be fit for purpose - are considered as techniques which can focus on learners being actively engaged during the session and not just passively listening to their teacher. In other words, it is not about what you will teach but how they will learn. However, to motivate and engage learners in inclusive learning environment, learners should feel confident to disclose concerns and accepted as inclusive learning is crucial to the academic development of the learner (Seward,2018). This can be achieved by differentiating activities to address individual differences in abilities and levels, encouraging group works to improve interactions among learners, adopting means of addressing the less motivated, focusing more on learners’ strength and working on their weaknesses, acknowledgement of dedication and hard work, using a wide range of teaching, learning and assessment approaches based upon learners needs and by using resources and materials which positively promote all aspects of
According to Campillo (2004), corrective feedback is significant to L2 development since it provides the learner with an opportunity to reflect on the utterance and consider other possibilities. These benefits of corrective feedback are also applicable to the foreign language context in the sense that they may trigger the cognitive process required for acquisition. Ur (1996, p. 242) considered feedback as "information that is given to the learner about his or her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving this performance". Richards et al. (1992, p. 137) perceive feedback as "information which provides a report on the result of behavior".