Numerous studies have provided different perspectives and evidence on the impact of racial inequality in the criminal justice systems, specifically how these racial inequalities affect black Americans. Lisa Miller found in The Invisible Black: Victim, “mistreatment by law enforcement, law-makers, and federalism” in the racial bias toward black Americans (2010). Pettit and Skyes in Civil Rights Legislation and Legalized Exclusion, point out that black males are more likely to end up in jail (2015). A sociologist named David Garland contrived the term “mass incarceration” to explain high incarceration rates in the United States (U.S) (Pettit and Skyes 2015). Currently, the highest incarceration is among black men of 1 in 15 (Miller 2010).
Poverty also goes hand and hand with racial disparity in the United States. Poverty indirectly occurs from unemployment, and social disorganization. The economic status of an offender has a significant impact on the likelihood of recidivism. At that point, law enforcement entities and society as a whole started to view African Americans as violent drug offenders (Walker, Delone,
According to the article, “Why Police Kill Black Males”, Gilbert and Rashan state, “The criminalization of black males has a long history in the USA, which has resulted in an increase in policing behaviors by legal authorities” (Gilbert and Rashan). They also assert that black males in America have been stereotyped as violent criminals, felons, drug dealers and sexual predators (Gilbert and Rashan). Even more striking is the claim by Matthew Hughley in his article which appeared in Critical Sociology, that the criminal justice system has evolved the ideology that blacks have an inherent predisposition to commit crime (Hughey 857). Sadly, black males are perceived as threats even when they are unarmed. Hughey supports this assertion when he states, “Black Americans who are fatally shot by police are, in fact, less likely to be posing an imminent lethal threat to the officers at the moment they are killed than white Americans fatally shot by police” (Hughey 859).
Several negative representations were noticeable for instance, he dealt with drugs while on duty and committed several crimes. However, black masculinity and the Blaxploitation era began to change the way films address African Americans in films. Shaft was one of the strongest films that portrayed black masculinity and empowered men as protagonists to fight their enemies. The films were aimed towards Black audiences to present them a better representation of African Americans than what Hollywood was portraying them harshly. Moonlight became a successful film due to changing the harsh stereotypes of masculinity.
The 1960s brought a completely different aspect to police violence in that police brutality was the most prevalent among African American communities that were trying to achieve social and political equality through peaceful or radical means. As social tensions rose, African Americans across the country tried to change the dogmatic thought of African American inferiority through either peaceful or radical social movements. Martin Luther King Jr, a prime example of peaceful integration of African Americans into American society, led nonviolent resistant movements that allowed some movements to be successful, and others to be catastrophic in terms of brutal police intervention. For example, The Birmingham Civil Rights Protest of 1963 clearly
The New York Draft Riots was a violent group that fought against wealthy’s exploitation and discrimination toward the poor. The riots impacted fighting for their honor, respect, identity, moreover, looking for prosperity toward their community. The film Gangs of New York is an accurate depiction of New York’s nineteenth century gang culture. The Gangs of New York film, directed by Martin Scorsese, portrays its historical background, the hard life conditions in the Five Points, the racial discrimination immigrants faced mostly Irish, as well as government's own interests benefit and self- protection using a strong characterization such as Bill The Butcher, Boss Tweed and Amsterdam Vallon. Furthermore, the film portrays the procedure of the Civil War and ethnicity
Currently, a major issue that is plaguing the United States is racism within law enforcement and the criminal justice system, specifically towards the African American population. Michael Brown in Ferguson and Eric Garner in New York are just a few of many examples of police brutalization towards African Americans. David Bedrick's article What's the Matter with 'All Lives Matter' takes a stance on the rising controversial issues of race and discrimination. Bedrick gives his view point on the popular phrase that has given a name to a unique movement garnering change and recognition for African Americans; 'Black Lives Matter'. This phrase took a roaring start on social media and has since grown to become an activist movement creating feelings of mass unity among African Americans all over the United States.
The word gang may make individuals quiver, as gangs are associated with gruesome criminal activities. Formation of gangs and gang violence is a global crisis. Some of the most notorious gangs are located in; Europe, Asia and Africa. However, the majority is located in the Americas, namely; Bloods, Crips, Aryan Brotherhood, and Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13), (Rodriguez, 2005). It is said that the rise of gangs in American came after the end of the American Revolution (Howell & Moore, 2010).
Based on most local and national news stations, minorities are targeted for small crime offenses while majorities are literally blowing up the country. It is understood that the police could more effectively fight crime by targeting minor offenses (Hinkle 1). Those minor offenses are more likely done by minorities but more specifically Black Males. Raja Staggers-Hakim’s article argues the needs of Black male youth, relative to police killings, are captured, and persistent racial stereotypes that are often used to justify the extra judicial killings of unarmed African American boys and young men are challenged. His argument understands the social epidemic of police killings on the emotional and psychological well-being of Black males to put an end to police killings.
One of the first claims Morgan made was “Black-on-black love…is in serious danger.” During 1999, the time that the essay was published, there were many black on black crimes across the United States because of rival African American gangs fighting one another. As a result, the increase in black-on-black crime correlated into a decrease of black-on-black love. So Morgan believes that if black-on-black crime does not come to an end, black-on-black love will be in serious jeopardy which I agree with this notion. In order for black-on-black love to prosper, black people need to reunite which is slowly happening today with movement such as Black Lives
The research conducted in the study and article clearly shows that within cases where a taser is used to subdue a suspect or offender, people of African American race are more predominate to have this use of physical force used on them in contrast to other racial ethnic groups. This establishes that in police culture there is a stereotype that has formed that use of a taser is needed when some sort of resistance has occurred by someone of African American race. This may have formed from multiple civil unrests that have happened recently regarding and sometimes including African American people, or it could possibly be an officers own prejudice at times. Even though these events may show dangerous actions that happen from racial ethnic groups
The "cumulative impact of racial discrimination accounts for the special, way that blacks have of looking at and evaluating" their experiences in public encounters (Feagin, 1991:115). For example, descriptions of black citizens ' mistreatment by the police are abundant in some African-American communities. Regardless of their accuracy, the dissemination of these narratives increases the likelihood that neighborhood residents will come to view local policing strategies as racially biased (Weitzer, 2002). Feagin 's (1991) examination of racial discrimination highlights the importance of understanding the impact of accumulated discriminatory experiences. One of the most reliable findings in research on attitudes toward police is that citizen distrust is more widespread among African-Americans than whites.
Injustice within police brutality among African Americans In recent years, there has been many controversial cases among African American with police brutality. As a police officer’s job is to serve, and protect all, their judgement and decision making among whom to serve and protect has been brought up to the public eye. There has been unjustified shooting, excessive beatings, fatal choking, and unfair treatment because of the color of one’s skin tone. Lives are being taken, families are being destroy and as a result, the impact of police brutality among African Americans have to be mandatory discharged in society today. While police officers are faced with many challenging, and threatening circumstances every day, they have the more
Similar cases such as black on black violence and police on black violence that seem to be never ending spark anger and hate in the hearts of the African American race which has only turned into more crime and more violence. This violence and crime has turned tourist city into a war zone for the past decade and it paints a terrible picture for a city whose main financial income is its tourists. The black on black and police on black violence can be solved over time by a multitude of means one of them being the coming together of the African American community to protect themselves from racism, stereotypes, crime and self-inflicted
There was already heavy gang presence in Los Angeles, predominantly Mexican-American and African-American gangs. Seeking protection and lacking stable families of their own, Central American kids began drawing together for protection, and eventually created two separate gangs, Mara Salvatrucha and the rival 18th Street gang that have by now become powerful international criminal