By definition, corrections are the variety of programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of individuals who have been accused or convicted of criminal offenses (Clear 11). Yet, looking at what prisons are giving inmates today, it seems that this definition is not being upheld. There has been a lack of funding towards new programs that could prevent inmates from returning to prison, and the result is an increase in recidivism in prisons all over the United States. Since World War II through the 1970s, many changes have occurred in the United States correctional systems. During these years, the correctional system has transformed from the rehabilitation model to a more punitive model.
In order to be able to understand the reason why violence is highly used in prison gangs we most know the history behind their organization. For example, the NF originated in Soledad prison in California in the mid 1960s. They were formed because they were tired of being the victim of abuse from the EME so they branched off and made their own organization. The NF members that started the prison gang were once Mexican Mafia members. The EME would prey upon those who weren't part of them.
Before the centralization of prison systems, prisoners had the privilege to decorate their prison cell, personalize their prison clothing, and have different types of furniture, such as bookshelves, rugs, and chairs. However, this changed when the prison system became more centralized. Austin and Irwin (2012) explained that “the centralization of authority and the formation of rules and regulations in prison systems resulted in stringent and uniform routines”, which eliminated the privileges of the prisoners. In our course textbook, Dannie Martian, a former prisoner at Lompoc, provided insight on the changes that occurred at the prison in which he was incarcerated.
White gangs, specifically white prison gangs, emerged in the United States around the 1950’s. It wasn’t until the Aryan Brotherhood who originated in California in the 1960’s was the first group who combined gang activities with white supremacy. Since in the 1960’s and 1980’s some prisons were still racially segregated, which helped keep the violence with in the prisons low; once desegregation of the prisons took place the violence in the prisons rose. At the same time in the 1980’s several white prison gangs were created. This includes the Aryan Brotherhood of Texan, the Aryan Circle, the Aryan Warriors, the Ohio Aryan Brotherhood, and many others (Anti-Defamation League 2016:18).
1. Before the rise of imprisonment there were a number of alternatives to incarceration that were being used. These alternatives include; flogging, which is historically, the most widely used of physical punishment. The bible mentions instances of whipping, and Christ himself was scourged. Whipping was widely used in England throughout the Middle Ages, and some offenders were said to have been beaten as they ran through the streets, hands tied behind their backs.
Another example to illustrate Padilla’s thesis is rivalry among other gangs. Their gangs were under constant threat of invasion and take-over by other gangs. Engaging in rivalry among other gangs led to criminal acts. These youngsters would have to defend what they believed was their property. In other words, these youngsters did not want other gangs to take over their property.
America is a nation freeing its self from the shackles of the past . This is evident during the mid 19th century with reform movements happening in the Temperance, Education, Prison, women’s rights, and anti-slavery. Temperance, also known as Prohibition, is the fight against Alcohol. Americans were extraordinary heavy drinkers. In the 1820s it was estimated that per capita, consumption was 4 gallons of two-hundred proof per year (Larkin.
How does gang violence puts an impact on society? Gangs have turned the society into a war zone between different gangs. Educating people about gangs would have people thinking should they really join. People should know the history of gang violence and the types of gangs they should look out for so they could stay away. Gang violence is nothing someone should play around with because you can get killed or even in trouble with the law for just associating with them.
Some reforms that have been built around the promise of public interest are the prison institutions, businesses, political machines, and voting rights. Before their reformation, these systems were oppressing minority communities from thriving. Before there was a prison system, citizens who chose not to follow the law were brutally punished. Then during the 1800s, the early stages of prison systems were developed.
How has the concept of incarceration evolved over time?(1500-2000 words) In this paper I will be demonstrating how prison has transformed over the past two decades. Michael Foucault is one of the most important and influential humanistic and social scientific disciplines. He published the “ Discipline and Punish” book , and suggested in order to achieve effective control by stating “to punish less, perhaps; but certainly to punish better”.