My findings focused on the points that mass incarceration substantially affects families and jobs, which then become factors in the issue of recidivism. Moreover, these problems especially target minorities at high rates. To strengthen these points, I could have done more interviews, especially with past convicts or convicts who have returned to jail in order to get more first-hand experiences. As well as interviews with different ages of children exposed to incarceration to see if or how the effects differed. In the future, I hope to expand on the other ways incarceration affects lives, such as through health, especially mental health, or college opportunities.
In the article, Unwinding Mass Incarceration by Stefan Lobuglio and Anne Piehl, they argue that unwinding the mass incarceration “well neither be cheap nor easy, and to be done responsibly will require a new infrastructure of coordinated community-based facilities and services that can meet evidence-based incarceration needs while also ensuring public safety.” Hence, their argument is clean-cut with evidence in the article to back up their argument of unwinding the mass incarceration. Similarly, a solid fill of a concluding statement upon the unwinding of the mass incarceration as stated in the article, “requires much more than stopping current practices or reversing course by mass commutations and early release programs.” Subsequently, from this article, there are numerous interesting key points, and perspective of unwinding the mass incarceration.
Their stories depict how our education systems track those who are going to be placed into the cycle of the criminal justice system. Interviewees illustrate how our criminal justice system is locking up “people we are mad at” instead of the “people we are afraid of.” Demetra had 11 charges by the age of 14, diagnosed with anxiety, placed in juvenile jail 3 times, and placed into juvenile housing after assaulting her aunt (guardian). She stated multiple times throughout the documentary, that being incarcerated never taught her a life lesson, and only made her angry. She had barely entered high school, and already had been a placed into the cycle of incarceration.
Did you know that there are roughly 165,824,620 women currently alive in the United States as of this year, women make up about 50.6% of the population? But did you also know that there are 219,000 women locked up in our current Criminal Justice System? Where nationally, we lock up 8 times the amount of woman than we do men. That’s a lot of mothers, daughters, sisters, and aunts locked up. Many of these woman that are currently incarcerated have at some point in their lives experienced some sort of mental, physical, and sexual abuse.
White gangs, specifically white prison gangs, emerged in the United States around the 1950’s. It wasn’t until the Aryan Brotherhood who originated in California in the 1960’s was the first group who combined gang activities with white supremacy. Since in the 1960’s and 1980’s some prisons were still racially segregated, which helped keep the violence with in the prisons low; once desegregation of the prisons took place the violence in the prisons rose. At the same time in the 1980’s several white prison gangs were created. This includes the Aryan Brotherhood of Texan, the Aryan Circle, the Aryan Warriors, the Ohio Aryan Brotherhood, and many others (Anti-Defamation League 2016:18).
In order to be able to understand the reason why violence is highly used in prison gangs we most know the history behind their organization. For example, the NF originated in Soledad prison in California in the mid 1960s. They were formed because they were tired of being the victim of abuse from the EME so they branched off and made their own organization. The NF members that started the prison gang were once Mexican Mafia members. The EME would prey upon those who weren't part of them.
The policy has created a large inequality gap in today’s western society, seen in wealth, race and the mass incarceration of the minority group such as the African-Americans, the Aboriginal and people that have mental health issues. This out-dated policy has allowed racial disadvantage to happen where the government shows little interest in dealing with this injustice due to making them look being soft on crime (3,54). This policy has kept the minorities poor, depress earnings by 30–40%, break up families, make men unattractive marriage partners, and increase social disorder (3,54). The result of this policy is creating mass incarceration where prison are overcrowded with minorities groups and as stated in my introductory assignment where resources are being stretched to the max, where things such as social programs in prison are being canceled to give the basic material for each prison.
Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration–The Problem of the United States In America, the private prison industry was made for necessary profit based off of the management of prisons by large, private companies. In David Shapiro’s insightful report “Banking on Bondage”, he discusses the logistics of the United States prison system, saying “In America, our criminal justice system should keep us safe, operate fairly, and be cost-effective”. Today, the United States imprisons more people than any other nation in the world, including Russia, China, and Iran.
In Northern California Hispanic gangs graffiti is distinct in the fact they are known to tag the number “14” which in the alphabet is the letter “N” for norteno or northerner. These gangs fall under the geographic area opposite of that of Surrenos which is the area just north of Bakersfield up to the state border of Oregon. The nortenos also pledge allegiance to a prison gang but not the Mexican Mafia. The nortenos pledge allegiance to their own prison gang called “Nuestra Familia” or in English “Our Family”. Similar to southern gangs they pledge allegiance by following order from within the prison by the Nuestra Familia shot callers and paying “taxes” from their drug sales.
Slavery, Jim Crow, the ghetto, and the carceral apparatus are all structural institutions that share a mutual beneficial relationship where each has supplemented and historically progressed into more advanced subtle forms of oppression and racism. Past and current regimes served as social functions with the objective of encompassing African Americans in a permanent subordinate position. In each generation, newer developments of a racial caste emerge with the same objective of repudiating African Americans citizenship. The only thing that has changed since Jim Crow is the language we use to justify racial exclusion (Alexander, 2). These four regimes are genealogically linked because they all advanced and developed from one another.
Where I reside, Silver Spring Maryland (Montgomery County), there are no gang related activities. I live in a suburban area and the law enforcement are very strict and the area is safe. However, gang crimes exist in Prince George's County and Baltimore City, Maryland. Maryland had passed ordinances prohibiting loitering, and many forms of aggressive public behavior, such as, consuming alcohol in public, throwing up gang signs and disturbing the peace by playing music too loud. Law enforcement police attempted to discourage gang membership by prohibiting behavior that relates to gang activities.