Thus, a higher percent yield was calculated for acetaminophen. Although, a second filtration was performed; however, a very low concentration of acetaminophen was recovered as a result of human errors, and the transfer of solution/solid contributed to product loss. However, the mass use to calculate percent yield was the first mass recorded because it may be more consistent than the mass measured after the second filtration. However, for further experiments, the percent yield must be calculated with the corresponding mass of product (actual yield) even though there is loss of product, the actual yield is the final concentration of the recovered product in the experiment. Thus, the results may be more conclusive if the actual percent yield was used.
Introduction The purpose of the experiment was to synthesize and purify isopentyl acetate or banana oil. In order to perform this reaction, the mixture containing excess acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol was heated under reflux. The methods of extraction, drying, and distillation were then used to help purify the isopentyl acetate. After the completion of all these processes, we were able to determine the yield and analyze our isopentyl acetate.
The use of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) to improve the solubility of poorly soluble drugs is limited due to low solubility of βCD itself (18 mg/ml). If βCD is used at a greater extent in a formulation, it may lead to certain toxic effects. Though the derivatives of βCD are highly soluble, they are costlier. Hence in order to improve the solubility and complexation efficiency of βCD, multicomponent inclusion complex is prepared by incorporating a third component during the complexation process which may consist of amino acid, hydroxy acid or hydrophilic polymer. Multicomponent inclusion complex also reduces amount of βCD required for complexation, thus reducing the formulation cost (16, 17).
The powder on the filter paper could've fell and this caused it to have a smaller percent purity, percent yield and also cause a lower absorbance and concentration of pure ASA. Another error would be not using a properly dried sample for the pure ASA in part C when making the crystals, this could have cause tye percent yield error. This would make a lower melting point. To prevent this from occurring next time there could be a dry sample that is completely dry and this would not alter the mass of the sample and this would make the solution have a more
The data table provided below obtained melting point data for crude product, pure product, and mixture of the pure and 4-tert-butylbenzyl. 12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
Although .7906 mg of phosphonium salt was added, this probably was not enough to complete the reaction. The only significant change throughout method was 1 was that the yellowish mixture became slightly lighter. However, it was found that after vacuum filtration, there was some white and yellow
Our reaction yielded 3.696% of phenacetin product. Hence, the formation of phenacetin via acetaminophen synthesis was not a success. In addition, the poor amount of product formed was not white colored crystals, instead the crystals were of black appearance. A main reason to suggest for the unsuccessful completion of phenacetin could be due to the usage of 2 mL 2.5M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH)/H2O, instead of the recommended ethanolic sodium hydroxide solution, which was mainly recommended because of the stability and
Solids are crystalline and are generally only composed of a single chemical species. Because they are ordered and are not mixtures, their entropy is very low compared to the entropy of a liquid. However, because solids have a lower enthalpy than liquids a competition between entropy and enthalpy sets the freezing point of a solid. If the liquid is a mixture, it will have a higher entropy than a pure liquid and hence, the entropy loss due to freezing will be greater. This greater loss of entropy leads to a lower freezing
The drop in pressure meant that the molecules hit the sides of the can with less force and hit the sides less frequently. The pressure inside of the can was then much lower than the atmospheric pressure outside. The molecules outside crushed the can because when they hit the outside of the can, they hit it more frequently and with more force compared to the molecules inside of the
These ions form precipitates with soap molecules, and this precipitate is often seen as a grey line on a bathtub or sink and is often called soap scum. Since soap forms a precipitate with these ions, it means that many of the soap molecules are no longer present in the solution. Therefore, soap will form fewer bubbles in hard water. Soft water is water that contains very few or no ions that precipitate with soap. Soap will therefore be much more effective in soft water than in hard water.
This means that n-butanol will have less tendency towards cavitation and vapor lock problem, which can eliminate the need for very special blends during the summer and winter months as the gasoline. As the heat of vaporization of butanol is less than half of that of ethanol, an engine running on butanol should be easier to start in cold weather than one running on ethanol or methanol. In addition, the auto-ignition temperature of the n-butanol is lower than ethanol or methanol, which also results in less ignition problems at cold start or low load conditions. As butanol has a very low vapor pressure point and a high flash point, it is a much safer fuel to use in high temperatures (134). One advantage of butanol over ethanol is that it is much less anhydrous, which greatly reduces the risk of water contain absorption by the fuel, with a higher latent heat of vaporization, butanol is expected to have lower indicated specific fuel consumption.
When atoms are cold they sink because they are more compacted and don’t move around as much. Sink or Float was a lab that showed about temperature and density changes. With the cold water we saw it sink and just stay at the bottom of the container without moving. When the hot water was added it made it rise to the top of the container and spread. That showed us that the bottom layers would be hotter and the top layers would be colder.
The difference in this chemical and physical properties will aid in their separation. Processes like solubility, gravitational filtration and recrystallization will be used to separate the substances present in Panacetin. The melting and boiling point of the substances will help in concluding on which of these compounds will be presented at the end of experiment. Procedure and observation The Panacetin content was weighed approximately 3.0493g and transferred to the Erlenmeyer flask; 75ml of dichloromethane (CH¬2CL2) was added to the content. The dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) dissolved the sucrose, leaving the active unknown agent and aspirin behind.
A decrease in melting point occurs with an impure substance. If she is not convinced by those two melting points, she can create a solid derivative of 2,4-DNP to obtain a third melting point to compare. Furthermore, she could perform the Tollens’ test or the Iodoform test just to be sure she is coming to the correct conclusions. 4- A student finds that the 2,4-DNP derivative of his unknown melts at 155-156°C, and the oxime melts at 68-69°C.
Introduction The purpose of this week’s lab was to enhance our understanding of the Grignard reagents that were examined in lecture. In this lab, a Grignard reagent will be prepared through the reaction of magnesium turnings and bromobenzene. Instead of isolating the product it will then be combined with benzophenone, which will give the final product of triphenylmethanol. Procedure