Title: How Ph Levels Affected the Fermentation of Beer Hypothesis: The beer will be left with more sugar deposit as the Ph levels increase because alpha/beta -amylase will no longer function. Predictions: Alcohol Percentage Analysis for the Control and the Experimental During this experiment, the pH level was increased, therefore Alpha-Amylase was favored. Due to the nature of Alpha-Amylase cutting randomly through a large carbohydrate molecule, it leaves bigger sugars in the flask, which cannot be digested by yeast. Due to this, less reactions should occur in the experimental, therefore leading to a lower percentage of alcohol production, compared to the control. There should be a higher alcohol percentage in the control than that of
The third method is stab culture. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are grown by stabbing vertically into nutrient gelatine in a test tube. Gelatine which contains Escherichia coli remains solid while the gelatine that contains Bacillus subtilis turns into liquid. This shows that Bacillus subtilis produces an enzyme called gelatinase which will turn the solid gelatine into liquid form while Escherichia coli do not produce gelatinase. The last method is plate culture whereby Escherichia coli are grown by streaking on agar plates in Petri dishes.
Using chromogenic media which is based on essential pathogenic virulence factors of listeria has been administered recently . Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in Listeria agar with Ottaviani and Agosti(ALOA) is based on detection of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C(PI-PLC) activity which Listeria monocytogene and some strains of L.inanovii hydrolysis the l-α-phosphatidylinositol and produce a fatty acid and form a opaque halo around the colonies [130, 131]. The other media which are similar to ALOA plate include: BCM listeria (Biosynth, Switzerland), OCLA (Oxoid, UK), CHROMagar_ Listeria (BD e Diagnostic Systems, USA) and OAA (bioMérieux, France). Rapid L’mono_ (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA), could distinguish between hemolytic and non hemolytic listeria based on fermentation of xylose. L.ivanovii could ferment the xylose and produce blue colonies with yellow halo but L.monocytogene is non hemolytic and could not ferment the xylose and produce blue colonies without a halo.
Diluents do not react in alkylation chemistry, but they take up space and decrease the effective area for isobutane and olefin to contact. With less contact, side reactions like polymerization are more likely to occur; polymerization reactions are a direct acid consumer. Comparing the FCCU and Coker BB, Coker BB contains far more contaminants and diluents than FCCU BB (see Table 2, pg.4). By lowering the amount of contaminants and diluents, acid consumption reduced 0.2
The Rf calculations of aspirin in table 1 shows an Rf value of .491; however, in table 2 the Rf value of aspirin was calculated to be .784. This Rf value is the higher among the other compounds because the Rf values decreases from aspirin to caffeine; therefore, this suggests that the
The Eadie-Hofstee kinetics graphs shows the value for Km at 37°C is higher than at 65°C, which supports calculations of Km and Vmax found from graphpad. Lineweaver- Burk can be used to find Km and Vmax however it’s inaccurate and outdated . Eadie hofstee is more accurate than the Michaelis-Menten as it has a linear relationship, thus it is prefered. From the values of Km and Vmax it can be concluded that trypsin is more efficient at 37°C. When the temperature is increased Km is larger therefore the affinity also increases but Vmax decreases so rate of product formation is lowered .However the data gathered is unreliable as the test was not
Multicomponent inclusion complex also reduces amount of βCD required for complexation, thus reducing the formulation cost (16, 17). In our previous study it has been reported that the βCD alone increases the solubility of DOM by 2.2 folds where as ternary complex comprising of DOM, βCD and citric acid (CA) increases the solubility of DOM by 76 folds (18). Riebero et al. (2004) have reported that the quaternary inclusion complex (QIC) of a weakly basic drug such as vinpocetine, βCD, tartaric acid and water soluble polymers enhances the solubility of vinpocetine than the ternary complex involving vinpocetine, βCD and tartaric acid. It was found that the polymers increased the stability constant of QIC by co-complex formation (19).
When the cacao arrived to the factory, the manufacturer start with sifting the cacao from other object, once it cleaned it is weighted and stored according to the type of cacao. After that the beans start too baked in a round oven. At temperature of about 270-290F. The roster process is important thus, the heat brings the flavor out and makes the beans darker. The roster makes the cacao bean cracked, they remove the outer shells, and keep the crushed and broken pieces of cocoa bean, called nibs.
It was difficult to find an IL that worked well extracting all the N-compounds. In general, it was observed that the nitrogen removal of the synthesized ILs was higher for indole and carbazole than for quinoline (Figure 3). The reason behind this behavior is that quinoline is a Lewis acid, while indole and carbazole are Brӧnsted acids. The imidazolium ILs containing halogen anions showed a good removal efficacy, while the change of anion from chloride IL 1 to dicyanamide IL 2 decreased the extraction efficiency of N-compounds. The presence of double imidazolium rings in the structure of the ILs (ILs 4-5) or aromatic derivatives (IL 7) led to the reduction of the removal properties.