Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory

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The main idea of this theory is that knowledge should not be seen as a single general ability, but a combination of eight distinct forms of intelligence. Psychologist Howard Gardner at Harvard University in 1983 originally proposed the Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory . He defined eight measures of multiple intelligence: linguistics, logical- mathematics, visual-spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, musical, bodily-kinesthetic and naturalist. (Armstrong, 2007; Gardner, 1983).

According to MI theory individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences. Each of our individual "profiles" of intelligence combines uniquely. People then differ in their abilities to carry out different tasks and solve diverse problems, and progress in
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The research team studied a set of forty-two schools that had been using MI theory for at least three years. The results from these schools were very encouraging. 78% of the schools reported positive standardized test outcomes, and 5/8 of these attributed the improvement to practices inspired by MI theory. 78% of the schools reported improved performances by students with learning difficulties. 80% of the schools reported improvement in parent participation, and 3/4 of these attributed the increase to MI theory. Finally, 81% of the schools reported improvement in student discipline, and 2/3 of these attributed the improvement to MI theory. The results are summarized in the book, Best Practices in Multiple Intelligences. Allyn and…show more content…
The theory by itself was groundbreaking in that it was among the first to go against the psychometric approach to intelligence and take a more cognitive approach. This may explain why his work has been of greater interest to psychologists, while MI has captured the interest of educators and the lay public.
The triarchic theory of intelligence provides a useful way of understanding human intelligence. It seems to capture important aspects of intelligence not captured by more conventional theories. It also differs from the MI theory, which emphasize eight independent multiple intelligences. According to the triarchic theory, intelligence has three aspects: analytical, creative, and practical. The triarchic theory emphasizes processes of intelligence, rather than domains of intelligence, as in MI theory. It also views emotions as distinct from intelligence. Eventually, a theory may be proposed that integrates the best elements of all existing
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