• The chromosomes begin to decondense and return to their string formation. • Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm to form two new cells. • When cytokinesis finishes, we get two new cells, each with a complete set of chromosomes identical to those of the mother cell. The daughter cells can now begin their own cellular lives and undergo mitosis themselves, repeating the cycle.
During this phase, the duplicated genetic material within the nucleus is separated and kinetochores develop around the centromere. Kinetochore microtubules extend from either side of the cell and attach to the kinetochores of my sister chromatids. After these kinetochore microtubules have attached to every chromosome, I will move into the third stage of mitosis, metaphase. During metaphase, my chromosomes align along my equator through a type of cellular “tug of war.” The kinetochore microtubules mentioned in prometaphase pull my sister chromatids back and forth in a “tug of war” fashion until they align on the equatorial plane.
The chromosomes then split into two sister chromatids which the centromeres hold together. This therefore mean that there are two sets of sister chromatids (four chromatids) in the two chromosomes. Two non-sister chromosomes cross over as the other two remain. Secondly, in metaphase I, chromosomes line up at the center of the spindle fibers in pairs then the third phase, Anaphase I begins when equal amounts of chromosomes divide. On the last phase, telophase I, the daughter cells completely divide, chromosomes disappear, and the nucleic membranes forms.
- Where DNA can be found and the role does DNA play in heredity?-DNA is found in every cell within the nucleus (Eukaryotic cells) apart from blood cells. Chromosomes are made up of thin strands of (DNA). Each chromosome pair contains thousands of genes. The human genome is made up of about 3 billion chemical bases that are arranged in patterns similar to individual letters arranged into sentences. (Professor Stuart E. Ravnik Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center).
Next there’s the Nucleolus which is a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase. The last and final part of the nucleus is called the Endosome this is a membrane bounded compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway from plasma membrane to the lysosome. Not all cells have a nucleus though. Biology breaks cells into eukaryotic (those with a defined nucleus) and Prokaryotic (those with no defined nucleus). You don’t need a nucleus to have DNA.
The proteins continually moves between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm because of the dynamics within the cell. The structure of the nucleolus is divided into three main subcomportaments, which are the fibrillar center (FC), the dense fibrillar component (DFC) and the granular component (GC). In several studies it was possible to discover that the nucleolus contains most of the cell’s genetic material, structured as multiple long linear DNA molecules.
The two types of cell division processes are mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process where somatic, or non-reproductive, cells are created, while Meiosis is the process that creates gametes, reproductive cells like sperm and eggs. Before discoursing these processes, one must discuss the different forms of genetic material. These are essentially the three forms of a cell’s genetic material. Chromatin is its loosest, least-organized form, which floats freely around inside the nuclear envelope.
The chromosomal theory of inheritance proposed by Boveri and Sutton in 1902 states that chromosomes are the physical structures that are responsible for the transmission of hereditary characters through successive generations of all organisms. Chromosomes are the structures that store and transfer genetic material from one generation to the next. They are most often found as long, thread-like structures located within the nucleus and their main function is to carry hereditary information. Recombination of chromosomes and crossing over during meiosis allows for variations to occur within a species from generation to generation.
Mitosis leads to production of cells that are genetically identical to their parent and as the basis for producing new cells, whereas meiosis leads to production of cells with half the genetic content of the parent and as the basis for producing new sexually reproducing organisms. With these two types of cell division
According to Resnik, Steinkraus, & Langer (1999), gene therapy defines as the medical procedures that use DNA in the therapeutic treatment of human disease. There are two types of gene therapy – germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Germline Gene therapy is the introduction and modification of DNA in embryos or reproductive cell to treat disease (Giacca, 2010; Resnik, Steinkraus, & Langer, 1999). Somatic gene therapy is the manipulation of DNA in body cells to treat disease (Resnik, Steinkraus, & Langer, 1999). According to Journal of Gene Medicine (2015), from 1989 to July 2015, there are over two thousand clinical trials on gene therapy.
What is the term for the random arrangement of homologous pairs of chromosomes during the first division of meiosis? Independent Assortment 5. What role does the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) play in producing a DNA Profile? PCR amplifies the regions of DNA with short tandem repeats and uses primers with fluorescent labels. This works by replicating the region of DNA several times.
Anaphase occurs next in which the cell’s centromeres divide and the sister chromatids separate and move to the opposite sides of the cell. Then comes telophase in which the nuclear membrane begins to reform and the chromosome begin to decondense. Also the spindle fibers disappear. We end this
After multiple cycles of ligation, detection and tail cleavages, the extended chain reached the end of the template. Then the whole extension chain is removed and a new starting primer switching down 1 nucleotide position binds onto the template for another cycle of reaction. Totally, five round of primer binding cycles are performed to complete the sequencing of each fragment. 3. Pitfalls and limitations of NGS Errors could be introduced in any step of the sequencing process, including library
Observations After conducting an experiment to find which plant, Tagetes erecta or Pelargonium graveolens inhibit bacterial growth. Results have shown that one plant, Pelargonium graveolens, prevented the growth of the bacteria, Staphylococcus, more efficiently and effectively than the Tagetes erecta. These results are evident as seen in the statistics provided above. The area around the Pelargonium graveolens sample just after day one was at 8 millimetres; day two increased to 9 millimetres and remained the same throughout the four day experiment. As shown in the graph, the area around the plant sample grows in a circular size showing the inability of the bacteria to invade the plant cells.