Gas exchange is a process in which two different gases are travelling in opposite directions;inhaled air is transferred from the lungs into the bloodstream and the release of carbon dioxide,from the bloodstream,through exhaled air.A suitable Gas exchange surface would include thin,moist and large characteristics.An efficient Gas exchange is vital as it is linked with respiration in animals. Guppy Fish (Poecilia reticulata): The Guppy fish belong to the Poecilia Reticulata family.Guppy fish are water-based animals that have an external gas exchange system that is constantly exposed to water. The water is an extremely important and efficient habitat for the guppy fish as the water prevents the gills from sticking together or collapsing like
The cardiovascular system also known as the circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels. One of the most important jobs it has is to “circulate” blood. The heart works to pump the deoxygenated blood to the lungs for gas exchange while simultaneously pumping oxygenated blood to the body’s tissues. The blood vessels work to continuously bring the blood to all areas of the body which helps regulate body temperature. The flow of oxygenated blood to the tissues helps deliver nutrients such as amino acids and electrolytes, water and oxygen.
As water moves through the gills oxygen gas is picked up and taken in by the blood vessels. The water is moved upward, forward, and out of the crayfish through the mouth. With the current of the blood, the oxygen is taken towards the tail and up towards the heart. By the time the oxygen gas has reached the heart most of it has become poorly oxygenated. The heart continues pumping ad when passed by the green glands any material not needed is excreted.
This lab investigated how differing conditions in water would affect the reflex known as the dive reflex, which was evaluated by measuring heart rate and amplitude of blood flow. The dive reflex is explained as a drop in heart rate and blood flow while the subject is submerged underwater. Bradycardia is the term used to describe the decreased heart rate (HR), and it is advantageous to mammals. Bradycardia helps retain as much oxygen as possible during the submersion in order for muscles to work more effectively. A normal heart rate is 60-100 beats per minute (BPM).
Feeding habits and role in the food chain: Daphnia feeds mainly on unicellular algae, yeast and bacteria. Upon feeding, Daphnia uses its third pair legs to filter the water allowing the proper food size in while keeping the large particles out. Beating the water with the other sets of legs create water current that brings in additional food. The feeding habit of Daphnia explains their ecological role as their lower density and consequently less food consumption could lead to algal overgrowth along with possible decline in dissolved oxygen during night. On the other hand, the importance of Daphnia in the food chain is significant as Daphnia is preyed upon by several aquatic organisms such as tadpoles, salamanders, aquatic insects, and many of small fish species.
Crayfish are decapods pertaining to the phylum arthropoda, which are invertebrates and contain an open-circulatory system.1 The system works by the hemolymph getting re-oxygenated in the gills before being transporting to the heart by brachio-cardiac veins and then pumped to sinuses that bathe tissues with oxygenated hemolymph.2 The crayfish contain a neurogenic heart that depends on neuronal input from cardiac ganglion.3 The neurogenic heart requires nerve impulses to produce contractions in contrast to a myogenic heart that can contract independently from the nervous system.3 The crayfish heart will beat due to the reaction of the ganglion to stimuli in the environment.4 Stimuli will affect the autonomic nervous system in the crayfish that control involuntary actions such as the heart rhythm.4 Neurotransmitters are the chemical signals in which the nervous system regulates both heart rate and contraction.3The autonomic nervous system breaks into two categories as parasympathetic system that is involved in relaxation of organs and the sympathetic system that will stimulate increased activity. Neurotransmitters can either increase or decrease heart rate by altering the patterns in neural activity of the heart.4 Crayfish are poikilotherms, which means they cannot metabolically thermoregulate thus conform to the ambient temperature in the water.
Fish- The purpose of the cardiovascular system is to distribute the blood throughout the body. By doing so it removes metabolic waste and carbon dioxide from the tissues while simultaneously supplying the necessary nutrients and oxygen. To power this important and crutial system there must be a main power source. The heart is the main power supplier of the circulatory system which drives its functionality. Beyond the heart the circulatory system is comprised of the three major types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Carbonic acid then ionizes to shape H+ and HCO3-(bicarbonate). By conforming the blood convergence of carbon dioxide and accordingly of carbonic acid, the procedure of ventilation keeps up legitimate acid-base balance of the blood. Metabolic acidosis stimulates hyperventilation, which can bring about a respiratory alkalosis as a halfway remuneration. Amid exercise there is expanded ventilation, or hyperpnea, which is coordinated to the expanded metabolic rate so that the blood vessel blood PCO2 stays ordinary. Amid overwhelming exercise the anaerobic edge may be come to at around 55% of the maximal oxygen uptake.
The oxygen in the lungs spreads out into the blood and carbon dioxide in the blood spreads out into the lungs. Internal respiration is the gasesous exchange in the body tissues. in contrast to these physiological processes, ventilation or breathing is a mechanical process that takes in and takes out air in to the and out pf the lungs. It consists of 2 steps: inspiration and expiration. In human body respiratory system takes place at the same time but it’s practical to think as it includes number of steps.
When the leaves go through the process of a light-dependent reaction by being placed in water, oxygen is created through photosynthesis and is released into the interior of the leaf. This causes the leaf to rise. However, since cellular respiration is happening at the same time, the oxygen is also being used up. This means that the leaves must
In turn, the kidneys use the carbon dioxide and water to create or absorb bicarbonate. The lungs and kidneys work hand in hand because the lungs adjust the acid concentration quickly while the kidneys reabsorb or produce bicarbonate. What the lung and the kidney are doing for each other is termed compensation. Protein buffering is used in both intracellular and extracellular buffering. Proteins are considered negative buffers and pair well with hydrogen.
Leaf-like appendages, called phyllopods provide a filtering apparatus for the collection of food. These structures beat to produce a constant current of water, allowing particles to be filtered by fine setae on the thoracic legs. The particles are then transferred to their mouth groove to be ingested. D. magna typically feed on planktonic algae (Ebert, 2005). The following experiment uses algae to test what affects the feeding rate of D. magna.
Being able to raise and observe different species of marine life in a tank is good to protect a variety of marine species. One can observe how they act toward each other and many other interesting behaviors. This paper will be describing three topics, Beginning with Saltwater fish, The Arc - eye Hawkfish (parachirrhites arcatus) and Filefish. Eye Hawkfish and Filefish are two types of marine fish. There are certain things to consider when keeping fish in salt water tanks, to understand and start with the basics, here is what needs to be done first to have a saltwater aquarium.