The higher the value of the cetane index of the fuel, the shorter is the ignition delay period. Figure 53 demonstrates the variation of the in-cylinder peak pressure with speed for six different types of fuel. As it can be deduced, the peak pressure decreases with increasing the engine
It can be thought of as a measure of the difficulty of removing electrons or the strength of the electrons that is bounded. Consequently, the higher the ionization energy, the more difficult it is to remove an electron. Thus, ionization energy is considered as an indicator of an atom’s reactivity. This type of energy is usually expressed in kJ/mol. Similarly as the atomic radius, the ionization energy follows a trend on the periodic table of elements.
If the molecular weight affects the rate of diffusion, then the higher the molecular weight, the slower the rate of diffusion. This was observed in the experiment where diffusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) were tested. In this
3.2 Effect of Pressure and Equivalence Ratio Fig. 3 (1) - (3) give the effects of pressure and equivalence ratio on ignition delay times of DME/air, n-butane/air and 50%DME50%n-butane/air binary fuel. Note that for all mixtures, ignition delay times decreased with the increase of pressure, meaning that the increase of pressure can promote fuel ignition in current conditions. This is mostly due to the increased fuel concentration and enhanced molecule collision probability at elevated pressures. The influences of equivalence ratio on the ignition delays of DME/air and n-butane/air mixtures were investigated at pressures of 2 and 10 atm.
the Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (the smaller HETP narrower the eluted peak). If the length of the column is L, then the HETP is HETP = L/N Where N is the number of theoretical plates A chromatographic column can have millions of theoretical plates. The width of bands increases as the retention time (volume) increases. 3.2.2. THE RATE THEORY OF CHROMATOGRAPHY This theory describes the actual process going on inside the chromatographic column with respect to the time taken for the solute to equilibrate between the stationary and mobile phase.
For this experiment, the proportion to get a CO2 is 2HCl+Na2CO3 = CO2.., which is 2+ Na2CO3 : 1. So as the mole of hydrochloric acid is bigger,
Viscosity of the formulation was determined using Brookfield Viscometer. The viscosity of the formulation increased with an increase in Sodium Alginate and Pectin concentration. This phenomenon is a consequence of increasing chain interaction with an increase in polymer concentration. This change in viscosity is proportion to the change in concentration and polymer ratio. The buoyancy lag time in simulated gastric fluid (0.1 mol L-1 HCL, pH 1.2) varied with the formulation variable.
In the case of α-phase FePO4, cell parameters tend to increase exponentially as temperature increase. The volume of the metal has the tendency to increase exponentially as well. It is governed by thermal expansion coefficient α (K-1)= 2.924 x 10-5 + 2.920 x 10-10 (T-300)2. There are two factors that affect the thermal expansions: 1. Angular variations due to the changes of Fe-O-P bridging angles.
As such, in the low temperature of α phase, the structural properties will incline towards the values observed for high temperature in β phase of FePO4. As the temperature increases, the tetrahedral form is being distorted by vibrations where the cell parameters and volume of α phase increases in a non-linear manner, it causes the change in angle and length of bond of the FePO4 structure. As the α-β phase transition reaches the temperature of 980K, the tetrahedral angle decreases and the FE-O-P bridging angles increases. The main influence to the thermal expansion of FePO4 is known as angular variation where there is change between the two symmetrically-independent intertetrahedral bridging angles and its tilt angles. Thus, in relevance to temperature dependence on thermal expansion, the temperature is indirectly dependent on the angular variations of its bridging angles and tilt angles.