The mathematical relationship that exists between pressure and volume when temperature and quantity are held constant is that pressure is inversely proportional to volume. This relationship is known as Boyle’s Law. P1 x V1 = P2 x V2. When the volume of a container is decreased, when still containing the same amount of molecules, more molecules will hit the sides of the container, thus increasing the pressure. We were asked to graph pressure and the inverse of volume because the graph of pressure and inverse volume is inversely related to the graph of pressure and volume.
Iron phostate, also extensively known as FePO4, was studied through a special type of transformation process known as neutron powder diffraction. The transformation process uses a temperature that ranges from 297K to 1073K. As long as it is within the low temperature range, it is defined as the ‘α’ phase. Otherwise, if it is within the high temperature range, it is defined as the ‘β’ phase. The iron phostate will change its tetrahedral form in the low temperature range to its octahedral form in high temperature range.
INTRODUCTION The concept of chemical equilibrium was developed after Berthollet (1803) found that some chemical reactions are reversible. For any reaction mixture to exist at equilibrium, the rates of the forward and backward (reverse) reactions are equal. In the following chemical equation with arrows pointing both ways to indicate equilibrium, A and B are reactant chemical species, S and T are product species, and α, β, σ, and τ are the stoichiometric coefficients of the respective reactants and products: α A + β B ⇌ σ S + τ T The equilibrium concentration position of a reaction is said to lie "far to the right" if, at equilibrium, nearly all the reactants are consumed. Conversely the equilibrium position is said to be "far to the left"
NOTE: Record the grams of gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oils that are present in the 50 mL of crude oil. ➢ Select the flask, and choose Heating Mantel option afterward select Max Heat and make sure you record the temperature when you see crude oil begins to boil. ➢ When the crude oil begins to boil, Make sure you turn the temperature down to 60% by decreasing the heating metal two times. Step 3: Record the
Upon finding the actual concentrations of salicylic acid, concentration of aspirin in the flask at various times can be found using the equation [aspirin]t = [aspirin]0 – [salicylic acid], since at constant volume, number of moles of initial aspirin decrease to form salicylic acid. Initial concentration of aspirin formed as follows: [aspirin]0 = 0.212g / (180.157gmol-1 * 50/1000 L) = 0.0235 mol L-1. Thus using the first test as sample, [aspirin]t = 0.0235 – 9.981*10-4 = 0.0225 mol L-1. To find the rate constant, we will need to log the value of [aspirin]t and plot it against time to find the rate constant. Figure 1 shows the diluted and actual concentrations of salicylic acid, the concentration and log value of aspirin at various times.
The buret is filled to a point above the "0" mL mark with NaOH solution. In order to fill the tip of the buret with liquid, the solution is drained out of the bottom until the meniscus lies between the "0" and "1" mL marks. The initial buret reading can now be recorded to the nearest 0.01 mL. If you have any doubts as to your ability to read the buret correctly, ask your instructor to check your initial reading. Standardization of NaOH solution Accurately weigh out a sample of approximately 0.3-0.4 g of primary standard potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHPh, which has been previously dried at 120°C.
Another 5-mL test tube, labelled as B, was filled with 1 mL of distilled water. A drop of methyl red was added. Also, a 0.01M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added in a dropwise manner from a syringe until the color of the solution matches that of the first test tube setup. The volume of the HCl used was recorded for the determination of the ionization constant of
¾). Placed the cuvette sample in the Sprectrovis. After each run, the temperature of each sample was collected (to nearest 0.1°C). Disposed of the sample solution, cleaned the cuvette with DIW and repeated the latter procedure using the correct volumes for each new run from Table 1.
SOLUBILITY AND SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OBJECTIVE In this experiment you will determine the solubility and solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt, potassium hydrogen tartrate, and also in four solutions containing a common ion. INTRODUCTION When a salt of low dissolubility dissolves in water, equilibrium is established between the solid solute and the dissolved ions. There are two terms used in discussing this condition. The first is solubility, which is the maximum amount of salt that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent (usually water) at a specified temperature. Solubility is usually expressed in units of molarity (moles/L), but sometimes g solute/ g solvent is used.
The exploration was meant to also analyze the effect that temperature has on the rate of a chemical reaction. From the raw data obtained, it is clear that the time taken to complete the reaction decreases with increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is however dependent on the activation energy. When the activation energy is positive, as the temperature will increase , the rate of reaction will also increasing meaning that they are directly proportional .However, if the activation energy is negative, the rate of the chemical reaction will decrease as the temperature is increased. To carefully describe the relationship between the rate of reaction and the temperature, a graph of these two variables is plotted.
1. The first step of my calculations was finding the number of moles of CaCl2 and NaOH added in each test. The volume of CaCl2 is an increasing number with a concentration of 1.0M. The volume of NaOH is constant for all four tests, but the concentration is 2.4588M. To find the number of moles of each reactant added, volume in liters was multiplied by the molarity (concentration).
Methodology: The distillation column was analyzed theoretically using McCabe Thiele to establish the number of stages required for separation. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for methanol and 2-propanol was used to plot curves of methanol-vapor fraction versus methanol-liquid fraction, and methanol liquid-vapor fraction versus temperature. III. Results: From the results, the average efficiency was 0.4308, 0.3778, and 0.4956 at 0.57kW supplied (30.58 mL/min Feed; 26.30 mL/min Boil Up), 0.94kW (30.58 mL/min Feed; 52.96 mL/min Boil Up), and 1.27kW (30.58 mL/min Feed; 77.50 mL/min Boil Up) respectively. From the experiment, it was observed that the quality