It affects premature infants because their lungs not fully develop and the lungs don’t have an insufficient surfactant. The surfactant is a complex phospholipid+ protein secreted by type 2 cell. It reduces surface the tension of alveolus. It keeps the alveoli open and prevents a collapse of the alveoli. When the surfactant is inadequate the alveoli will collapse, lung expansion will become more difficult ( compliance).
This means that oxygen and carbon dioxide enter/exit the gas exchange organ via blood. To ensure that the gases are constantly being exchanged, the organism must be adapted so that there is a concentration gradient. The concentration gradient is maintained in mammals by blood flow. Blood is pumped around the body. This means that as each breath is taken, and new air enters the alveoli, fresh blood is there for the oxygen to diffuse into (and vice versa for carbon dioxide).
Animals require nitrogen for metabolism, growth, and reproduction and get it by consuming nitrogen-containing molecules in organic matter of both living and dead sources. (Pidwirny 2008) The nitrogen cycle can be summarized as follows; Nitrogen in the air (70%) gets converted into a useful form by nitrogen-fixing (conversion of nitrogen into nitrates) bacteria in the soil. This is assimilated by plants and animals.
As the right side of the heart pumps oxygen-deprived blood along the pulmonary arteries to the lungs, blood loses carbon dioxide and collects oxygen in the lungs (Rogers, 66). "The pulmonary veins open into the left atrium of the heart," recalls Rogers (66). This is pulmonary circulation. When the left side of the heart pumps blood along the aorta and around every part of the body, it takes oxygen to the tissues where it is needed and collects nutrients and waste products (Rogers, 67). This is circulation is called the systematic circulation.
The respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells while eliminating carbon dioxide, a waste product that can be lethal if allowed to accumulate. The respiratory system is divided into two parts: Upper respiratory tract - This includes the nostrils, mouth, and the beginning of the trachea (the section that takes air in and lets it out). Lower respiratory tract - This includes the trachea, the bronchi, bronchioli and the lungs (the act of breathing takes place in this part of the system).
This carbonic acid is highly reactive and dissociates into H+ ions and HCO3− ions. This reaction is continuous and fast allowing for a constant flow of carbon dioxide from tissues to the bloodstream. The free H+ ions bind to haemoglobin and the HCO3- binds to the RBC’s via the chloride shift process. When the blood reaches the lungs the process is reversed and the HCO3- ion is released from the red blood cells and the H+ ion is also released from the haemoglobin. These two free ions bind together forming a carbonic acid intermediate that reacts further with carbonic anhydrase converting it back into a gas.
As long as there is blood flowing through the body, the body strives to maintain homeostasis. For example, should one exercise, the body metabolises blood faster due to the need for oxygen around the body meaning the heart pumps faster to meet the demands of the body, in turn maintaining equilibrium and homeostasis. √ Blood is a vital tissue in sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Made up of various components its key task is to transport messages, deliver oxygen and other important minerals and gasses all over the body, whilst also acting as the body’s waste management service. The blood is made up of plasma (55%) and cells (45%) and makes up approximately 7% of one’s body weight Within plasma are both erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC) and leukocytes (white blood cells, WBC) both of which are
I. The circulatory system is one of the most important function in our body. It provides nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and cells and removes waste products produced by the cells. As the blood travels throughout the body, it picks up nutrients from the small intestine, oxygen from the lungs and hormones from the endocrine gland and delivers these materials to the cells. Once delivered, the blood picks up the waste products and carbon dioxide produced by the cells and transfers it back to the lungs.
In the human body, one of the essential systems is the digestive system, which breaks down the foods what we eat into nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and fats. The bloodstream would be absorbed by them. Therefore, it provides the body with energy, repair and growth. Also, the three types of processes that food passes through in the human body are digestion, absorption and elimination. The digestive system prepares the body cells for nutrients through six activities: Ingestion, Mechanical digestion, Propulsion, Chemical digestion, Absorption and Defecation.
This process can be measured in numerous ways, such as observing the amount of heat produced or changes in temperature in general (since cellular respiration is exergonic.) Another technique is measuring gas consumption or emission using a respirometer. The consumption of oxygen and a high carbon dioxide concentration would constitute cellular respiration, since oxygen is a reactant and carbon dioxide is a product. In this particular study, oxygen was measured in three different germination time trials.
The lungs and kidneys work hand in hand because the lungs adjust the acid concentration quickly while the kidneys reabsorb or produce bicarbonate. What the lung and the kidney are doing for each other is termed compensation. Protein buffering is used in both intracellular and extracellular buffering. Proteins are considered negative buffers and pair well with hydrogen.
This is a lack of red blood cells caused by low iron in the person’s body. If a person’s body is low on iron, this will make it difficult for the red blood cells to carry oxygen to the tissues. Many people go undiagnosed with this type of anemia. If the deficiency isn’t much, the signs and symptoms may not be very noticeable. With a larger decrease in iron, the signs and symptoms will become more apparent and obvious.