Temperature has an effect on both the structure of the catalase itself and the hydrogen bonds it is designed to cleave. As the temperature increases toward the optimum point, hydrogen bonds loosen, making it easier for catalase to act on hydrogen peroxide molecules. If the temperature increases beyond the optimum point, the enzyme denatures, and its structure is disrupted. In humans, the optimum temperature for catalase is 37 degrees CelsiusRole in Living Organisms Although its ability to break down a toxic molecule such as hydrogen peroxide might make catalase seem to be an indispensable commodity, mice engineered to develop without catalase have a normal physical appearance. Some research has indicated that a lack of catalase can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.
INTRODUCTION The major goals of periodontal therapy includes elimination of infection and controlling inflammation in order to arrest the progression of disease, and also the regeneration of lost tissues. Various biomaterials have been used for the treatment of intrabony defects and have demonstrated variable results . Recently, biological modifiers (growth factors) demonstrated their ability to stimulate cells which are located in periodontal defect and resulted in proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells . Biological modifiers are materials or proteins that have the potential to modify the host tissue so as to enhance wound healing process. These growth factors comprise platelet derived (PDGF), insulin
It has been observed by DA Bayliss, DE Millhorn, that Mechanisms underlying the stimulation of respiration by progesterone were similar to those mediating its reproductive effects. They indicate that the respiratory responses to progesterone is mediated at hypothalamic sites through Estrogen-dependent (E2) progesterone receptor (PR) mediated mechanisms requiring RNA and protein synthesis i.e. Gene expression. The E2 dependence of the respiratory response to progesterone is likely a consequence of the demonstrated induction of PR mRNA and PR in hypothalamic neurons by E2.16,17 Progesterone also decreases the alveolar and arterial pCo2 in luteal phase of menstrual cycle and provides strength to smooth muscles by acting as a smooth muscle relaxant.18 For the assessment of pulmonary functions FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC % are measured and according to one of the study all those parameters mentioned above are increasing significantly during the luteal phase in which progesterone level is high as compared to other phases of menstrual cycle19 All these evidences show that in luteal phase of menstrual cycle, there is a presence of relationship between changes in pulmonary function with progesterone. Different observations have shown that there is no increase in respiratory function parameters after addition of progesterone during different phases of menstrual
DMSO is a potent scavenger of the free radical but maintaining normal integrity of cells and tissues. DMSO acts as synergistic drug with other therapeutic agents [Dake1967]. DMSO is bacteriostatic in 20% concentration against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp and
The complement system is regulated by complement control proteins, which are present at a higher concentration in the blood plasma than the complement proteins themselves. Some complement control proteins are present on the membranes of self-cells preventing them from being targeted by complement. The coagulation phase begins about thirty seconds after the initial injury. It involves a complex sequence of events that ultimately leads to the activation of fibrin form fibrinogen. There are two separate clotting pathways, the intrinsic and the extrinsic.
However, this can be imbalanced by the effects of increased or decreased blood glucose levels (BGL). It is necessary for the human body to maintain a relatively stable balance in it 's blood glucose levels, so when this balance is disrupted, the body acts to return it 's BGL back to the normal range, as if the body does not react to these fluctuations, it may be prone to developing diseases that may result in irreversible consequences on the body, or even death. The primary solutions to re-establishing the body 's BGL is through the work of the liver and pancreas. The pancreas secretes cells called alpha cells, these detect low BGL and in turn send glycogen (the stored form of glucose) into the bloodstream, travelling to the liver, which then converts the glycogen into glucose, then releasing it into the blood stream in order to level out the glucose and insulin levels in the blood (re-establishing blood glucose levels) back to the normal range. When BGLs are high, beta cells (which are also secreted by the pancreas) detect this change.
Abstract: Drug companies must apply the knowledge gathered from the effects of substrate concentration in an enzyme catalyzed reaction. The awareness of inhibitors must be applied so that their developed drugs do not inhibit enzymes. It would be important to consider substrate concentrations in relationship to target enzymes that are exposed. Competitive inhibitor drugs compete with high concentrations of ATP in the cell and proteins inside the cell contain lower concentrations. Thus the knowledge of the effects of substrate concentration on enzyme activity would aid drug designers in utilizing competitive inhibitors that will inhibit the enzyme more effectively.
It partakes in directing the volume and organization of liquid encompassing the cerebrum through particular transport procedures, and hence adds to homoeostasis of the focal sensory system (Peterson, 2012). The blood-brain barrier is a mechanism that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the brain. It lets essential metabolites, such as oxygen and glucose, pass from the blood to the brain and central nervous system. It is a cellular and metabolic barrier located at the capillaries in the brain that alters permeability, restricting the passage of some chemical substances from the bloodstream into the neural tissue, while allowing other substances to pass into the
They may also be prepared from amphiphilic ionic molecules which are negatively charged or positively charged stearylamine. Niosomes are very much like liposomes in their physical characteristics but they differ in their chemical compositions. Niosomes in the form of micelles or vesicles can be used as carriers for the transport of drugs such as anticancer and topical preparations. Anticancer niosomes do accumulate in tumor cells and are mostly taken up by the liver therefore they can be used as drug delivery vehicles to the liver and spleen. Antigens were formulated as niosomes in water in oil emulsions which increases the activity of the antigens due it's controlled release
This chemical material has a molecular formula of C10H14N2 and its chemical name is 3-[(2S)-1- methylpyrrolidin-2-yl] pyridine. This compound had different chemical and medical effects such as increased sobriety, memory, and activity, but it results in heartbeat, blood pressure and decreased appetite in larger sizes. This action causes interesting medicinal properties which increase rate of such characters by adding nano properties of this structure [7-9]. Extensive HF and DFT calculations on fullerene isomers of C12 and their derivatives have been performed. Relative stabilities of possible isomers of fullerene and the reaction reactivity of the most stable fullerene toward the addition of nicotine have been explored.
Labetalol and Carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,