The manner in which the men and women carry themselves around is fundamental to the definition and distinction of gender in general. There are acts both of omission and commission that are associated with each gender. However as days go by, the society undergoes transformation and so do the traditions and cultures that shape and influence the society as whole. In the family set up for example, the different roles are distributed depending on gender. There are also perceptions relating to the behavior of people that distinguish what are expected and what is not expected from people of a given gender.
Gender identity is a controversial concept that has been discussed in terms of several perceptions such as psychological, social and political point of views. In consequence, it acquires different definitions and interpretations. However, in feminist works, using the feminist approach seems to be imperative because of its validity in analyzing the psychology of female heroines, as well as the psychology of female writers. This thesis attempts to clarify gender identity thought reading three postmodern gothic novels written by Angela Carter –a British contemporary writer. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to read the concept of gender identity in the terms of postmodern principles; it argues that Angela Carter in her postmodern gothic novels The
Gender roles are beliefs about the ways in which communal and societal roles are defined by gender (Slavkin&Stright, 2000). In traditional families, traditional gender roles are common. The male is the breadwinner; while the female is responsible for childcare and housekeeping. This pattern defines masculinity as assertive, aggressive, and independent (Eagly, 1987; Eagly & Steffen, 199284) and femininity is defined as emotional, sensitive and nurturing (Bem, 1981; Slavkin&Stright 2000). Gender differences have been discussed thoroughly by many researchers in the fields of language, education and others(see for instance, Locke, 2011, Okamoto, Slattery Rashotte, & Smith-Lovin, 2002, and &Kiesling, 2007).
Gender roles are defined by behaviors, but gender stereotypes are beliefs and attitudes about masculinity and femininity. The concepts of gender role and gender stereotype tend to be related. When people associate a pattern of behavior with either females or males, they may overlook individual variations and exceptions and come to believe that the behavior is inevitably associated with one gender but not the other. Therefore, gender roles furnish the material for gender stereotypes The concepts of male and female are relatively easy for people to understand
Throughout history, we have seen the same stereotypes placed on gender, men should be strong and brave. They are the ones that support their families while women are the caregivers and the nurturers and handling the household. According to Emily Kane in “Glamour Babies” and “Little Toughies”, “gender is not a straightforward amplification of underling biological differences between male and females; rather, gender is constructed through social processes and enforced through social mechanisms.” With that being said Kane feels that we should not limit ourselves to those preconceived notions of what men and women can do. According to Kane, we should not believe that men and women could not develop certain mental or psychological attributes merely because of their sex. This mean that we do not have to fall into the trap of preconceived notions, such as; if we are born a girl we will love the color pink and do poorly in mathematics.
This can be understood as how each individual internally experience gender. This could take shape in male, female, neither or along a spectrum. As well, an individual’s gender identity is not solidified by their birth-assigned sex, allowing the individual the freedom to identify themselves without binary categories. The second level of gender is interaction. Over time, men and women have been taught how to act in accordance with gender conformed behaviours, and looked upon as “abnormal” if they deviant from what is expected.
Gender is the scope of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.Social expectations about each gender should behave like base on their appropriate sex,the biological and anatomical differences distinguishing females from male . "While your sex as male or female is a biological fact that is same in any culture". What that sex means in terms of your gender role as a man or a women in society can be quiet different in each culture. Gender role socialization, the learning of gender roles such as schooling, the media, and family, is the process through which we learn about each individual roles in our society as a male or female by our surrounding 's The social construction of gender, the learning of gender roles through socialization and
Gender and Identity in the Twenty-First Century The Merriam Webster Online Dictionary defines the term ‘gender’ as: “the behavioural, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex”, whereas the definition of ‘sex’ reads: “distinguished respectively as female or male especially on the basis of their reproductive organs and structures” (Merriam-webster.com, 2016). In the past, and up until today, many people believed that the terms ‘gender’ and ‘sex’ are interchangeable. As the definitions of these words display, this is an incorrect view. This essay will discuss the issues surrounding gender in the twenty-first century and how the emergence of transgender (trans) individuals (focusing on Caitlyn Jenner, in particular) in the spotlight of mainstream Western media is revolutionising the discussions and dialogue around and with transgendered people. Gendered issues are still a point of contention in almost all societies and cultures, with rife transphobia and sexism being practiced almost unconsciously by many of the world’s cisgender (people who identify as the gender assigned to them as a result of their biological sex) population.
Social roles involving work, other activities and interactions, responsibilities in production and reproduction, expectation of behaviour, even dress and manner of speech, all become gender-types in the gender roles construction. As with other features of culture, the various aspects of gender are interrelated, woven into the building up of society, affected by all other aspects of human behaviour and interaction. Moreover, this set of interrelated features vary from one society to the next which means gender is culturally based, elaborate, and integrated with all other features of society. Another important point is that socialisation in these gender roles are so pervasive that the situation may indeed be nearly hopeless in terms of any real change from a critical perspective. Even when parents have reached a point of consciousness where they attempt to avoid gender-typed toys, it is often the children themselves who want such