Critical Relational Frames All relational frames are important for children to develop language acquisition as well as for them to understand their environment, but others are a little more important because they deal with the child’s ability to gain his/her own perspective of life as well as self-awareness as a result authors Novak and Pelaez state, “The three frames that have been identified as the most important in this regard are the frames of “I and you”, “here and there” and “now and then” (Novak & Pelaez, 2004, p. 309). These frames are different and are developed from caregivers that offer children extensive examples in the form of language; for example the caregiver would say “what are you looking at “while focusing their gaze on
Kramarae (1981:145), on the other hand, states that ‘men specialize in instrumental or task behaviours and women specialize in expressive or social activities’. Society’s sex-stereotyping of jobs influence girls’ behaviour and expectations, and encourage positive attitude towards language learning while society’s division of tasks and assumptions according to sex is transferred to boys and girls through formal and informal instruction. This alliance between society-education may explain boys’ and girls’ different concerns, attitudes and expectations. Girls’ communicative skills are enhanced if not maximised because of their expected patterns of interaction. Consequently, girls may develop a liking for languages.
Lev Vygotsky provided many contributions to development that impacted what we know about how children learn and the kinds of environment that should be provided for optimal development of language. Vygotsky believed that the environment provides children with information that supports language development. Similarly, he theorized that language begins with communication between children and individuals in their environment. He developed the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which is the distance between what a child can do independently and what a child can do with support from an adult. Therefore, the main role of an adult is to help children bridge the distance between what they can do independently and what they can do with some support.
A. Gender typing in early childhood is how people think each sex should act. Through cultural stereotypes and norms, children begin to associate different characteristics and activities with one sex or the other. As soon as children begin to understand gender categories they start to assign objects, roles, and traits towards a particular sex. Girls play with dolls and make-up and tend to spend more time with art or playing house, while boys have trucks, fake guns, or racecars and they want to play rough outside with other boys.
Interactionists argue that language development is both biological and social. Interactionists argue that language learning is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others. The Interactionists argue that "children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly and predisposes them to acquire new understandings that they are motivated to share with others" ( Bates,1993;Tomasello,1995, as cited in shaffer,et al.,2002,p.362). The main theorist associated with interactionist theory is Lev Vygotsky.Interactionists focus on Vygotsky 's model of collaborative learning ( Shaffer,et al.,2002). Collaborative learning is the idea that conversations with older people can help children both cognitively and linguistically (
One of these perspectives is analyzing communication through gender. In the book, You Just Don’t Understand, Deborah Tannen (1990) popularized the term “genderlect” to describe the way in which men and women communicate with each other. She suggested that men and women have different styles of conversing, forming two distinct dialects. In a review of Tannen’s book, DeFrancisco (1992) attributed the differing communication styles of men and women to the respective cultures in which they grow up. Because of such gender differences, misunderstanding between men and women creates a gap in the communication process.
Gender Inequality Gender inequality is a characteristic of social structure according to which different social groups (in this case men and women) have certain differences resulting in unequal opportunities. Gender inequality is associated with social construction of masculinity and femininity as oppositional categories with unequal social value (Ferree, 1999). One of the main problems in gender theory is the problem of dominance. Together with race and class gender is a hierarchical structure that could to provide both opportunities and oppression (Ferree, 1999). Gender inequality can exist in different forms, depending on culture, region, religion and other factors.
This was a very important thing Tannen did because to help someone the need to be aware of the problem first. Tannen starts off by stating that men and women learn their different styles of communication as children. When they are kids, they form a group for boys and a group for girls, and the two groups get close to one another but through different ways. One example of the differences is “Little girls create and maintain relationships through sharing secrets and conversation…. But bonds between boys are based less on talking, but more on doing
Although there is evidence to men’s and women’s brains being wired differently, there is still work that needs to be done to further understand why the brains take on different structures according to sex, why we are so effected by hormones, and why social expectations and gender stereotypes play such a big role in our lives. The physical or biological structure of men’s and women’s brains hold differences which helps support the theory that men’s and women’s brains are somewhat ‘wired’ differently. The physical differences between men’s and women’s brains contribute to the understanding of sex differences. It is shown that the male brain is on average eight percent larger than the female brain, meaning there is