Gender And Gender Equality In Employment In Japan

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It is often deemed that Japanese women are obedient and respectful to men. Likewise, Japanese women have been required to prioritise their households among other matters, and their commitments to family were high. Japanese working women typically begin their jobs after graduating high school or junior college, retire after marriage or childbirth, and then return as part-time or temporary workers in their forties. Gender equality in employment in Japan was mainly developed through the Constitution, the Labor Standards Law (“LSL”), the Civil Code, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Law (“EEOL”). Article 14 of the Constitution establishes legal equality of opportunity for men and women in relations between citizens and the State . Later the LSL was enacted to set different work standards for men and women. However, according to Articles 3 and 4 of the LSL , the LSL still did not address many other issues in relation to discrimination against women, other than wages. Moreover, the requirement of reasonableness by the courts and components of public policy and good morals in the Civil Code were left as huge obstacles to gender equality in employment. The EEOL was first enacted in 1985, and later amended in 1997 along with the amendment of the LSL in 1995. Unlike the Constitution and the LSL, the EEOL more carefully focused on women’s employment by prohibiting discriminatory treatment in not only wages, but also in fringe benefits, retirement age, mandatory retirement in

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