In a third and final point, we’ll consider that both gender studies and feminism should be studied separately because gender studies goes further and takes into account sexual characteristics and oppression in general rather than only social oppression towards a biological sex, being women. Gender is something different from social movements. Indeed, in general, gender studies bring to a reflexion on what is being a male and what is being a female according to time and places. The main goal of these studies is to observe how a sex is supposed to reproduce a common thinking and acting according to its societal past. According to Joan Scott, one of the main and first theorists of gender studies: "In grammar, gender is understood to be a way of classifying phenomena, a socially agreed upon system of distinctions rather than an objective description of inherent traits.
Stereotyping in occupational status will result in disadvantage in women 's career. Gatton, DuBois, and Faley (1999) claims that gender stereotypes of occupations are manifested in the belief that certain occupations are ``women 's ' ' (e.g., nurse, teacher, secretary, etc.) occupations and others are ``men ' (e.g., automotive mechanic, engineer, medical doctor). Due to this type of stereotyping in advertisements, some women are forced to abandon their ambition and passion due to the community mindset that it is not appropriate and might be too dangerous for them. Gender stereotyping in advertisements is an issue as it results in negative effects on both the society and the women in the community.
Postmodern Feminism Essay Whether sexuality and gender are learned or based in nature has been, and continues to be, a highly debated question with in our society. There are individuals that believe sexuality and gender are innate, meaning that we are born into them. On the other hand, some individuals believe that our sexuality and gender are learned, that they are socially constructed. The latter belief is known as gender performativity, coined by Judith Butler, and is a widely held belief among postmodern feminists. Throughout this essay, I will be analyzing a cultural artifact to further explore the theories of postmodernist feminists, specifically gender performativity.
Queer theory was developed by Judith Butler in her post-modern feminist text, “Gender Trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity” (Horitar, 2015). She discussed the role that gender and sexual orientation play in the way in which society uses this concepts in order to place individuals in a specific category on the basis on how they behave (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015). This theory examines the diverse ways in which current beliefs serves to reintegrate societal anticipations of gender identity, appearance and sexuality, it also offers a negotiation for the fragmentation of constructed gender categories (Horitar, 2015). According to Western society, sex defines your particular gender (feminine or masculine) which in turn defines your true identity, for example a biological female is considered to be a women who is anticipated, by their society, to be more sensitive and nurturing than a man and who needs a sensual relationship with the opposite sex (Horitar, 2015). This notion was rejected by Butler because according to her gender should be regarded as a performance and not as a category (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015).
Both of these texts explored the issues of the exploitation of sexuality and gender roles. It is irrelevant if the exploitation is in a fictional novel or if it occurs in everyday reality; Nevertheless, the issue poses as a threat to societies. The pressure established for the shoulders of women coerce them to conform and fulfill the oppressive roles assigned to
Looking the perspectives from each side should be appropriate, for the common opposition that they face. Reitman argues that both relativists and feminists see themselves as the minority in pursuing their interest, and often both are either antagonized or ridiculed when facing the majority (patriarchic hegemony for feminism and western powers for relativists) in the international community, and also the values that they share are fundamentally similar, as a form for the respecting differences, whether if it’s religion, culture, or sex. Reitman took a perspective of feminism personally, and from an outsider perspective, Reitman believes, although speaking naively, that relativists can reach a comprise in understanding between with feminism, so long as the concept of how women of the culture receives more empowerment in their own society, so much as a give-and-take situation. And if they do so, relativists would have the chance to seek endorsement from feminists in the international society, in order to maintain their way of life, without being antagonized or culturally imperialized by the western
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW Sexual fluidity and gender fluidity are relatively unfamiliar terms, therefore in this review the author will summarize some of the main studies on the fluidity of sexual and gender identity. This literature review aims to highlight some of the common misunderstandings in relation to sexuality and gender identity. The justification against doing this is to show that identity is not binary or fixed but can include multiplicities and individuals can experience fluidity in attractions or in their self-identity. 2.1 What is Gender Fluidity? Queer theory has defined the differences between sex, gender and desire (Seidman, J., 2005).
Stanton finds that Americans have to understand the difference between equality and sameness, in order to properly understand justice. Stanton explicitly decided to fight and demand equality for women. Distinguishing equality from sameness must be purposeful in order to be
Although Wollstonecraft agrees with Rousseau that women are biologically not as strong as men, she does not believe that physical strength is a reason for women to be seen as subsidiary to men. According to Wollstonecraft, the systems of education in place perpetuate socialization among the sexes which results in a society in which women are not using their reason while men lack reason. This knowledge brings the importance of education to the forefront as the current educational system is perpetuating inequalities among women by educated youth to conform to the stereotypical gender norms that are brought on by socialization. To combat the negative aspects brought on through the educational system which perpetuates inequalities brought on by socialization, Wollstonecraft calls for an educational system that focuses on understanding rather than one that nurtures sensibility at the cost of understanding (Wollstonecraft, 82). She believes that the current educational system contributes to some women’s dependence on men as due to the amount of time that women have been dependent, “is it surprising that some