In the book Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China by Jung Chang, the author talks about the stories of her grandmother and mother as well as herself during their journeys as women in China. The book discusses how gender roles, political ideology, and economic ideology in China change over time. During the entirety of Chinese history, many changes and continuities transpired and had crucial impacts on China. However, a great amount of change occurred during the time period from the 1900s to present day. These changes and continuities incorporate happenings in areas concerning the treatment of women, political structure, and economic capacity.
Throughout the course of history, society uses gender as an organizational tool to classify humans into two basic categories: male and female. This creates a gender binary with socially constructed norms that design a rigid guide as to how each gender must act and perform in their daily lives. Gender is a social construct and not inherent in our genes. As gender theorist Judith Butler claims, “Gender is the repeated stylization of the body, a set of repeated acts within a highly regulatory frame that congeal over time to produce the appearance of substance.” In other words, society is performing a role of gender every day that gives off an impression of male or female through our own repetitive performance of gender. Gender performance roles create and uphold societal norms, discourse, and the foundation upon which children are being raised in the patriarchy.
Massachusetts Stove Company return on Common equity ratio has fluctuated from 224% in year 3 all the way 32.6% in year 7. This change occurred because of the companies change in capital structure leverage. The reduction in the company's long-term debt and reduction in their deficit of retained earnings reduced their capital leverage, but this does not mean they are less profitable. Massachusetts Stove Company maintained a stable profit margin for ROCE from year 3 to year 7 and still saw increases in their net income. Over the past five years, the company has strategically crafted a niche market that is difficult for competitors to enter.
According to sexologists John Money and Anke Ehrhardt, sex and gender are separate categories. “Sex, they argued, refers to physical attributes and is anatomically and physiologically determined. Gender they saw as a psychological transformation - the internal conviction that one is either male or female (gender identity) and the behavioral expressions of that conviction” (Sterling 4). Although there are biological differences between the two sexes, but gender roles are socially constructed. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, behave and interact with society. Richard Dawkins states in his book, The Selfish Gene that we are merely a product of our genes and our main purpose in life is to serve the genes, become distribution agents and ensure their continuance (Nye, Savage and Watts 273) .
To think about the quote by Judith Lorber and my own life, gender is a socially constructed “being” of masculine or feminine. It does not refer to the genitals or certain biological markers. It is a set of feeling, thinking, and acting to be a man or woman. It is about the personal conception on how an individual sense the one fits into masculine or feminine characteristics. It is also about the social expectations for the state of being male or female.
One of these perspectives is analyzing communication through gender. In the book, You Just Don’t Understand, Deborah Tannen (1990) popularized the term “genderlect” to describe the way in which men and women communicate with each other. She suggested that men and women have different styles of conversing, forming two distinct dialects. In a review of Tannen’s book, DeFrancisco (1992) attributed the differing communication styles of men and women to the respective cultures in which they grow up. Because of such gender differences, misunderstanding between men and women creates a gap in the communication process.
From work life to family life, males and females are expected, and often adhere, to different roles based on their gender. In fact, in the article The Social Construction of Gender by Judith Lorber, she states that in our society “one gender is usually a touchstone, the normal, the dominant, and
There is a difference between sex and gender. Although sex and gender are used interchangeably sex is determined by the physiology of the natural body. Sex is solely the biological aspect of the human body while gender is a socially constructed matter. Thus gender is more fluid because it is constructed by interactions, experiences, environmental aspects and society imposed norms. Because of these social constructs Julie deems that human society depends on a predictable division of labor, a designated allocation of SCarce goods, assigned responsibility for children and others who cannot care for themselves, common values and their systematic transmission to new members, legitimate leadership, music, art, stories, garnes, and other symbolic
Social Constructionism The sociology of knowledge is a heterogeneous set of theories which generally focuses on the social origins of meaning. Instead of meaning inhering in objects themselves or being imposed idiosyncratically by individuals, meaning is hypothesized to emerge out processes of social interaction- e.g., traditions, norms, practices, rituals, institutions, habits, etc. The social world is an independent, external reality to which the individual must adapt or face sanctions. This ensures a measure of cognitive conformity. (Peterson,D) Social Construction of Gender Roles Gender is frequently reduced to biology and can be misunderstood.
The concept of intersectionality refers to the interdependence of multiple socially constructed categories and how they interact and shape different levels of social inequality, oppression or privilege. Through the analysis of multiple, and often complicated, intersections of race, gender, religion, this essay exposes the institutional and interactional dimensions of in the narratives of gender and sexuality, heteronormativity and homosexuality. Before we explore the intersection of social identities within our environments, it is important that the meaning and significance of the term ‘social identity’ is explored. ‘Social identity’ refers to the social category which on belongs to; for example, this may include elements such as your race, class, gender, age, education, sex and religion to name a few (Shields, 2008:300). Using this, examples of social identify could be ‘female’, ‘white’ or ‘Christian’.