She created the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, or BSRI, which measures an individual’s level of masculinity, femininity, and androgyny. Though many people may identify as highly masculine and not highly feminine, or vice-versa, Bem believes a person can also both highly masculine and feminine, which is what she considers androgyny. Furthermore, individuals may also be low in both masculinity and femininity, and Bem considers these people “undifferentiated” (Dea 2016, 81). The BSRI has been used in many studies, for example in a study by Mary Wulff and Jean Steitz uses this test in order to investigate the “psychological androgyny among 40 high school girls from a college preparatory upper-level mathematics class and from a vocational track cosmetology class” (Wulff & Steitz, 1997). The study hypothesized that “the choice of curricular track would correspond to traditional sex-role stereotypes and that there would be a significant difference between the two groups in terms of feminine orientation” (Wulff & Steitz, 1997).
According to the Oxford dictionary gender is defined as being male or female, often used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones. For example Biology says 'It 's a Girl! ', and Gender says 'We 'll buy those pink outfits, the Barbie’s and the Dolls House!". One might be born a woman or a man, but that does not necessarily mean that one is therefore born to be either a housewife/homemaker. The media and advertising are at fault for how gender is portrayed on adverts they create gender roles which the public perceive as the correct way to behave.
Comparing Homosexual and Heterosexual Relationships In relation to the comparison of heterosexual and homosexual relationship, Clarke et al. (2005) explored in their article of what occurs in relationships when there are unavailable ‘off-the-shelf’ roles. Gender difference is one issue that appears constantly in psychological analyses of heterosexual relationships. A world in which gender differences are widely believed in is where heterosexual couples build their relationships in, which in turn are reflected in institutions and popular culture. Couples are judged, positioned and regulated both by others and by themselves, against and through these ideas about gender difference.
In addition, the existence of such resistance—i.e. the intersex not only disrupts the heteronormative ‘truth’ constructed through apparatus such as medical institutions in consolidating the male/female sex as binary opposition of truth, but poses members to question the male/female body and their essentiality. Moreover, in the case of the intersex, their existence presents society with not only an alternative body, but also threatens the heteronormative narrative of bodies as ‘natural’ embodiment of sex, acknowledging that ‘sex’ is merely social construct and the body is just an ‘inscriptive surface’ for masculinity, culture, and discourse to inscript and reinscript and assert its power as mentioned by Reeser (Reeser 91). Hence, the intersex are marginalised and asserted as a medical condition. An intersex, by definition describes a medical condition of individuals whose exterior genitalia does not synchronise with interior (chromosomes, hormones, internal sex organs).
Gender could denote to communal institutionalization of sexual differences; they believed gender is utilized by those who comprehend not merely sexual inequality but far of sexual contrasts to be communal craft were by men and women are crafted to behave in precise methods that could be categorized as feminine of masculine (Okin, 1989: 116). 4 AMBIGUITY OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC
This involves same-sex attraction and with further research and linking it to assumptions of (Freud, 1905) that every individual is blessed with bisexuality which is biological as well as psychological, Sometimes further developing into homosexuality; they often have trouble in gender identity due to social and cultural effects. As a child reinforcement of male or female like behavior is incorporated therefore when attracted to the same-sex they face complex issues in gender identity. Also acceptance by peers and family plays a very important role in this case, a study conducted on 1518 students in Amsterdam and Netherlands confirms that acceptance of same-sex attraction plays an important role in gender conformity. (Collier, K. L., Bos, H. M. W., Merry, M. S., & Sandfort, T. G. M.,
While circumcision and FGM are anatomically similar, the two procedures could not be performed for more different reasons. Both practices involve the removal of sensitive, nerve filled areas in the genitals, but circumcision is not done to prevent sexual interest. For women, the sole reason for FGM is to prevent female promiscuity, to keep women virgins so they can be married off. Whether or not a man is circumcised has no bearing on his social status, his ability to marry, or directly relates to his worth as a human being. The most fascinating part is that even though the foreskin and the clitoris seem to serve similar functions, the removal of foreskin does not deter men from being interested in sex the way FGM deters women.
Whoever degrades another degrades me”(28). Whitman encourages his readers to remove the barrier between genders, by physically removing the “door,” the obstacle that separates men and women. Vivian R. Pollak writes in her essay “‘In Loftiest Spheres’: Whitman’s Visionary Feminism”, that Whitman’s solution to breaking down these stereotypes is to suspend the “sexual, racial and social norms” (Pollak 98). Rather than referring to women and men as two isolated groups, he removes the “door” which disregards the notion of unequal gender roles. Whitman encourages readers to break down the social barrier artificially imposed by society on genders allowing him to relate to both men and
Modern sociology states there is a difference between sex and gender – defining sex as “the biological categorisation based on reproductive organs” and gender as a “social classification based on on’s identity, presentation of self, behaviour and interaction with others” (Crossman, 2017). When someone identifies as a ‘transgender’ person, it means that they were “born with typical male or femal anatomies, but feel as though they’ve been born into the ‘wrong body’” (Intersex Society of North America, 2008). As of 2013, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights founded ‘UN Free and Equal’, a “global campaign against homophobia and transphobia”, though there are no formal treaties regarding transexual rights at his point (UN Free & Equal, 2018). Safe Schools is a
Some may possess high level of masculinity where as some with femininity. But some with high degree of both .and the index is called Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). The first euphoria faded as criticism began to be voiced against BSRI type psychometrics. If certain qualities are seen inherent to being female, these then also appear unalterable. But if we claim that they are unique to being female, then we are being in the patriarchal.
The difference between the two is that while biological traits are unavoidable, gender is a very fluid non-binary spectrum and is socially constructed. Sex is only physically denoted, while gender is a complex mixture of how you see yourself, how you present yourself, and how others see you. Gender, in its simplest form, applies various sets of meanings and actions assigned to masculinity and femininity, with a wide spectrum between the two. On the edges of the two sides, you have the traditional gender roles assigned to males and females. Males are supposed to wear pants and shirts, play a dominant role in
The Flaws of Constructivist Thinking Social constructivism and psychology have come at odds in recent years, as social constructivism has increasingly been used as the be-all-end-all explanation by third-wave feminists for different aspects of human sexuality and sexual behavior, despite proven scientific explanations that debunk and even contradict such a view. In the continuation of the everlasting nature vs. nurture debate, the feminists assert that society, nurture, is far more significant in determining sexual behavior than genetic or innate biological factors. These modern-day constructivists are as close to the Tabula Rasa/blank slate perspective as can be, and assert this as the truth, even when science shows otherwise. The University of California Berkeley explains that social constructivist view asserts that “all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions” (Berkeley). In other words, it argues that human behavior is learned through interactions with other people and the whole of society, and “not
These laws, then, uphold old notions of chastity and virginity, while providing a weapon against men from social groups we do not like. They also deprive women in their mid and late teens of choice under the guise of protecting that choice. The highly “patriarchal and paternalistic” law is what Delgado sees an area for further revue. With the lack of women being charged for such crimes, he questions things such as pressured intercourse and sexual love involving two consenting individuals. He also believes that women are scarcely charged with statutory rape because it is how it “should be.