Society thinks of someone’s identity as a stagnant object that is un-swayed by the environment around them. However, there are many factors that go into what someone’s identity is. The novel “The Return of Martin Guerre” by Natalie Zemon Davis, discusses how gender roles and identity can affect a person. Both topics, gender roles and personal identity, have individual issues as well as compound issues in today’s society. They exist on their own but additionally, they influence each other.
Arfken, Bellar, and Helms (2004) described the evidence of glass ceilings as “blocks” and restrictions that are reflected by various forms of gender equality breaches to females such as denial of promotion, due rewards, and equal opportunities as well as limited training, development, and promotional opportunities to TMTs. Similarly, scholars including Bryant (1985), Cox and Smolinski (1994), and Cotter et al. (2001) found that a glass ceiling stifled the career growth of women leaders irrespective of their skills, experience, and aspirational goals, thus, impeding their advancement to TMTs. The authors found evidence of restrictions that limited women’s entry into top jobs to analyze the impact of gender-based barriers to women’s careers. These authors observed that a glass ceiling functioned in a way that affected not only its victims, but also a firm's productivity.
There are various causes for this which include gender roles, discrimination in the work place, and generally undermining or undervaluing women’s work and skills. These are all ideas that stem from a traditional concept of women having to remain in the home and raise the children as men work. As time has passed, however, women have been granted more opportunities in the work force yet still struggle to be viewed as equals to their male counterparts. Society 's core values have not moved in tandem with the changes in the work
The causes of gender inequality are complex, linked as they are to the intra-household decision-making process. However, the decisions are made; the intra-household allocation of resources is influenced by market signals and institutional norms that do not capture the full benefits to society of investing in women. Low levels of education and training, poor health and nutritional status, and limited access to resources depress women 's equality of life and creates hurdle in economic efficiency and growth. Regional perspectives play a very important role in the realm of gender equality. The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its ¬Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles.
The domestic setup such as the family has provided for this type of notion, given the roles of bearing children and being caregivers in the household (McAfee, 2014). What liberal feminism has done most convincingly is breaking down how modern society discriminates against women within male dominated fields. In the light of this theory, liberal feminists have given the equality of rights to modernity. This perspective could not be comprehensive however to the difference between men and women, but there has been success in proving that this difference does not mean inferiority (Zerilli, 2009). (MacKinnon, 1989)The feminist theory goes deeper into exploring the nature of gender oppression using other perceptions of the feminist
Women’s empowerment is a process where women become more aware of sex‐based inequality in power relationships by which they start to acquire a greater stance where and start to speak out against the inequality they see in their community, home and the workplace. It involves women taking control over their lives: solving problems, building self‐confidence, developing self‐reliance and gaining skills to ensure better work opportunities. (COSATU, 2015) From as early as the 1930’s woman have had to fight for fair labour in their respective working fields (SACTWU, 2015), as they were only seen as a “male appendage” and not an individual in their fight for equality in the 1950’s. (SOUTH AFRICAN HISTORY ONLINE, 2015) In our new democratic country
II) Articles: Comparative Study on Gender Justice, Author: Upasana Mukherjee. In her article on gender justice she writes about gender justice prevailing in India and other countries. She writes that it is very difficult to have complete justice towards genders in India the reasons being the diversity in cultures, subcultures, rigidity in traditions and beliefs, lack of education, lack of development, poverty, improper enforcement of law, deep rooted patriarchy which leader to subversive conditions of women in our society, she writes about various law prevailing in the country. Gender hierarchies in Europe and USA are more balanced than that in India. She expresses her opinion that although a lot has been done in securing gender justice,
The sympathy is even the working women who plays a dual role is not recognized. Be it a patriarchal society or matriarchal society, women should be honored and identified as equal to men. The atrocities against women should be stopped. Feminism should be wide spread to address the problems of women promising them a bright insight into the vision of forth coming
Statistics helps us understand where we are and where actually we want to go while guiding the way all along. Gender disaggregated data is the fundamental requirement for understanding the gender energy situation. This paper assesses the research methodologies from the available literatures for understanding gender dimension in the sphere of energy, health, education and agriculture sectors and tries to develop a theoretical framework with the aim of deriving a gender sensitive methodological instrument for research and data collection which would help to improve the gender concerns in at different stages energy policies and further help towards getting clean affordable energy to women and girl who are currently undergoing lot of hardship and suffering health consequences. This will help millions of women and children who currently spend half of their lives for fetching fuels and water can contribute to economic growth and have personal fulfillment. In this case, the methodology will be applied to India, Bangladesh and Nigeria.
Abstract: Uplifting economic, social, political status of women is very much essential to empower the women. All over the India, the economic status of women is found to be very poor due to less education among women. So, to empower them, they needed to improve their economic status by standing on her own legs and providing equal opportunity in all sphere of life. There is a urgent needs for promoting education of women, to improve economic status of women, and eliminating violence against women to empower women. This paper discuss barrier of women empowerment, steps taken by government to empower the women and suggestion to empower them.