Suppose person A and B. The A is a man and B is woman. The A shows language behavior of himself according to his maleness and also affects B's language behavior. Based on this paper the degree of speech interruption is more than men that is depend on environment and gender of other speaker. References - Cameron, D. (1992).
Gender Roles can be defined as roles society expects people to play on account of their sex life. Like all roles, gender roles are made up of sets of expectations, so they can be thought of as sets of expiations, so they can be thought of as sets of expectation that are attached to sex. (pp: 220 John E. Farley & Michael W. Flota). Gender roles are separate patterns of personality traits, mannerisms, interests, attitudes, and behaviors that are regarded as either male or female by one 's culture. Gender roles are also exist with respect to interpersonal behavior (it still common for men to ask women for dates than vice versa).
In one article, the author mentioned the inequality of men and women that were shown in advertising. “Despite the many people’s desire to strive toward greater gender equality and smash antiquated conceptions that ‘men’ and ‘women’ are to serve distinct roles in society, popular media seem insistent on portraying gender in very ‘traditional’ ways” (Andy 2). As it is said in the quotation, media and advertising often show the traditional roles of men and women even though now that the society is changing. Traditional masculine and feminine body shapes are emphasized on advertisements. On most ads, women are skinny while men are strong.
Based on this idea, women social position got out of the domestic limits. Women began to do different enterprises which were only limited to men. However, the male-mainstream, in social criteria, are still limited to the physical features which characterize men (Wright 49). The purpose of these introductory statements is to expose the difference between men and women in terms of physical characteristics. To explain, the relationship between males and females is sometimes determined by the males’ ability to subjugate females only by using their physical control (Bruehl 176).
A lot of studies have been done in order to know and document the social differences between both genders women and men. "This theory about gender does imply that gender differences are flexible, because they are dependent on the immediate social role of individuals. For example, individuals occupy many roles simultaneously, all of which impinge on their behavior. Work roles, such as leadership positions for instance, might override their gender roles and reduce gender differences" - Eagly & Johnson, 1990. One of the aspects that have been studied is the amount of talking between women and men.
hypermasculine views on society Hypermasculinity, defined, is the physiological term for the exaggeration of male stereotypical behaviours, such as an emphasis on physical strength, exaggeration and sexuality. To put a long story short, Hypermasculinity is the idea that men have to appeal to the ideal standards of a man in society. ‘men don’t cry’ ‘man up’ ‘stop acting like such a girl’ these derogatory terms are just examples of the hypermasculinity man putting shame to other men, why shouldn’t men be able to express themselves other than using violence. It is more likely that a boy would use violence to express their pain than to cry because of the stigmatism of weakness behind the idea of crying. It is something that every boy is
In accordance, Holmes (1995) explains also the way language is used by males is different from that of females : Most women enjoy talking and regard talking as an important means of keeping in touch, especially with friends and intimates. They use language to establish, nurture and develop personal relationships. Men tend to see language more as a tool for obtaining and conveying information (p.2). Moreover, men and women tend to use offensive language differently in a mixed _company.This is reiterated by Coates (2004), who mentions Gomm’s research (1981) in her book which shows that “ both men and women swear more in the company of their own sex and male usage of swear words in particular drops dramatically in a mixed_ sex conversations ” (p.97). In general, males use weaker expletives in the presence of females and they tend to use them sometimes as a strategy to dominate during mixed_gender interaction.
The “token status” is generating and confirming gender stereotypes. More than in other groups because such a single woman (in a male group) is always compared to a female role model. This effect is related to the "gender-role spillover". - Think manager - Think male According to Neuberger (2002) this phenomenon is explaining that the typical image of top-level leaders in the society has a big congruence to the image of the male
This argument is in line with what Cameron argues. Cameron (1998b, pp. 280–1) also states that Men and women are members of cultures in which a large amount of discourse about gender is constantly circulating. They do not only learn, and then mechanically reproduce, ways of speaking ‘appropriate’ to their own sex; they learn a much broader set of gendered meanings that attach in rather complex ways to different ways of speaking, and they produce their own behavior in the light of these meanings. It therefore can be simply said that according to Cameron, men and women have their own ways in communicating with others together with their belief of what men and women are supposed to do.
The chapter, ‘Faces of a man’ speaks of the various roles a man adorns in his life. A man is expected to be funny, witty, responsible, financially sound and decisive. He is also assumed to be incapable of handling a kitchen, a budget or children. Advertisements have contributed immensely in strengthening and in some surprising cases, breaking down these stereotypes. The second chapter, ‘Sex sells’ talks of how traditionally the term ‘sex appeal’ was used to refer to female alone; but nowadays, many an ads portray men as sexual objects with definite vital statistics.