Difference Theory Of Gender Differences

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4.3 Theory of difference

The difference theory assumes that well prevails a fundamental difference between the sexes being husband and wife.
The focus of difference theory therefore is not the abolition of these differences, but rather whose recognition (Heintz, B., 1993, p 21).

Wesely (2000) is highlighting that the basis of the difference theory assumes that gender is not only occupied biologically, but also a strong social category belongs (Wesely, 2000, p.21).

The nature and the behavior of men and women is influenced by their sex and therefore decides on certain lifestyles and life opportunities.

Furthermore, one can speak of a structural difference, which affects the social life different to each gender.

Nickel (2002) is underpinning
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If we compare this set of characteristics now with the table above, it is clear that most of these properties are attributed to the male gender (Pußwald, B., 2005, p 19).

4.4.1 The glass ceiling

This phenomenon is dealing with the fact that many women are participating in the lower and middle management while only very few of them move up into the top management levels.
It is an invisible blanket between the different management levels, which is difficult to infiltrate. The described phenomenon is known as the so-called "glass ceiling".

Neuberger (2002) is mentioning the following reasons, which are explained more in detail in the following:

- Partly deficiencies in professional experience and qualifications of women
- Men society federations
Even if the top level of management in a company is not only dominated by men, it is working according to the criteria or characteristics of men 's society federations.

According to Rastetter (1994) the rules are characterized as follows:
Difficult access
The membership as a privilege
Self-decreed strict regulations
The principles of brotherhood, equality and camaraderie
A strict
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Mostly Henn (2007) speaks about positions beyond the glass ceiling.
In this context “token” is understood as figurehead or navigator.
This single woman is treated as a “token woman” which means that she is treated as she get this position in a company in order to fulfill society norms like a woman’s quota. As long as the number of women in top leadership positions is very small, a woman is still who is there is seldom and special a deviation of the male norm.
The “token status” is generating and confirming gender stereotypes. More than in other groups because such a single woman (in a male group) is always compared to a female role model. This effect is related to the "gender-role spillover".

- Think manager - Think male
According to Neuberger (2002) this phenomenon is explaining that the typical image of top-level leaders in the society has a big congruence to the image of the male

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