Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified females from advancing to the top-level positions. Several studies have confirmed that a 'think manager, think male ' bias helps to maintain the glass ceiling (Schein, 2001). Because the stereotypic attributes of a typical manager overlap considerably with the typical man and share few attributes with the typical woman, this leads to a perception that women do not fit in positions of organizational leadership (Heilman,2001). People lacking the attributes of the powerful group can experience a visit as "foreign" territory. Even though women do break through the glass ceiling, they experience less favorable outcomes in their careers because of their gender than do men (Heilman & Okimoto 2007; Stroh, Langlands, and Simpson , 2004).
Gender essentialism has contributed to the rise of male primacy view, which implies that men are naturally adapted to the authority than women. The male primary has become converted into vertical and horizontal segregation through internalized self-evaluations, discrimination, and gendered expectations. Occupational segregation and Evolved sex differences The sex differences in occupations are assumed to result from malfunctioning labor market that discourage women from joining the male-dominated occupations and an educations system that is oriented to leave women unprepared to handle the technical and scientific professions. As opposed to the belief that most sex differences are as a result of discriminatory demand, imbalance in supply. The differences occur in both temperament and cognitive ability, which result from evolutionary history and they expose men and women to variations in professional behavior.
Theoretical Background A variety of theoretical approaches to the study of language and gender have developed to account for gender differences in language use. However, interpretation of speech differences between men and women is associated with two main approaches: dominance approach and difference approach. The dominance approach is proposed by researchers such as Lakoff (1975), Spender (1980), and Zimmerman and West (1975). This approach claimed that gender differences in speech are the consequence of unequal distribution of power and status in society. The central focus of this model is male dominance and gender discrimination, viewing women as oppressed and minority group.
THE GENDER GAP BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN IN THEIR WALKS OF LIFE FAVOURS MEN. There are many pressures in the world encouraging people to confuse and homogenize gender differences. Many claim that men and women aren’t really different at all. Some claim that men are actually different from the women biologically. According to study published in the open anatomy journal one essential difference is how empathy and logic are displayed between the sexes.
Although women make up 49,6% of the world population they only make up 4,4% of the positions of power in the world. In politics, this number is slightly larger but still is a shocking 22%. In addition, two-thirds of all the illiterate people in the world are female, one in three girls have experienced physical or sexual violence in their lives and over 150 countries still have a sexist law put into place. Inequality between the sexes often gets associated with feminism. This is because feminists strive to get away with the differences between men and women.
The debate between masculinity and femininity is nothing new in this society. Feminist have claimed that sociology in the past was controlled by male sociologists and thus have made distorted truth about the society as its consequence. Some sociologists may have taken too lightly regarding the issue of gender roles which cause uproar from the feminist’s perspectives. However, there are different sociologists such as the functionalist, Marxists that may view and interpret differently in gender roles. No doubt those criticisms are involved in this matter of different theories and perspectives.
Across the centuries women were repudiated entitlements equal to men and due the assembly of gender, men were given higher power above women. This has managed to disparate arguments of what is indeed the act of the woman in a gendered area and clashing for the credit of a female species (Rosenstand, 2009: 586). 3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SEX AND GENDER Liberal feminists squabble that both boys and girls across origin are born the alike merely the area will craft them on how ought to a man and a woman behave in a gender crafted society. Sex could be described as biological contrasts both inner and external organs. Gender could denote to communal institutionalization of sexual differences; they believed gender is utilized by those who comprehend not merely sexual inequality but far of sexual contrasts to be communal craft were by men and women are crafted to behave in precise methods that could be categorized as feminine of masculine (Okin, 1989: 116).
This refers to how we categories males and females into two sharply distinct groups. We educate boys and girls to behave differently, dress differently, offer them different activities and opportunities, and emphasise gender to them as a socially important category (Kane, 2012). Whether we disagree with the social roles associated with our gender, we tend to act in the way our gender roles expect us to, consequently avoiding social costs. These processes constrain both female and males, socially constructing a strict binary of two highly distinct categories and guiding people into one or the other (Kane, 2012). Generally speaking, this process constrains girls and women more so than boys and men.
Gender was classified as a social category linked with multiple social processes that generate and sustain differences between women and men not making it an innate concept for people. When gender is defined as a stable part of who someone is, it may be harder to understand the situational nature of this concept. In this way, gender theories are exceeding the understanding of gender as sex roles and sex differences to recognize gender as a multilevel structure. Gender is being defined as equally a structure and a process. This is an approach that promotes gender as a
The factors of gender health inequality Firstly, the reason why gender becomes a factor to health inequality is the gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes are the public presentation of gender identity. It means the image of men and women is decided by the society. Besides, it is a widely belief that man should act more masculine such as behaving in more dominant, competitive and responsible. Woman should be act more femininity such as passive, gentle and compassionate.