According to Stone (2013), discrimination is when another person is differentiate from another groups based on their sex, race, disability, marital and parental status. In the anti-discrimination legislation, it is known as making a group in advantaged and the other are in disadvantaged. Employment discrimination happens when employees and job applicants were discriminated because of their weaknesses, their family medical history, women that are pregnant, or the connection with a certain individual. (Doyle 2017). Discrimination has a lot of type such as discrimination by the society, discrimination that are indirect, harassment, and victimisation.
It occurs when a person is treated with disadvantageously due to their sex. One of the places that practise gender discrimination commonly is in the labour force. A job applicant may face discriminatory hiring practices or treatment when looking for a job. According to Becker (1957) in Fugueiredo M’s (2013) research, gender discrimination in the labour market is defined as A premium required to work with, buy from or employ a member of the group one discriminates against when that person is, except for group membership, identical to other individuals who are not discriminated against. The supply of members of that group and the distribution of preferences among the majority generate the observed outcome of market discrimination.
Discrimination means treating people differently or unfairly, these treatments based on their membership in a certain social group or according to their sex, race, religion or even their beliefs. Discrimination starts to appear late 17th century; it started against social classes in Great Britain and against race in America. According to social scientist, discrimination according to sex can be defined as biological or anatomical features such as: being male or female, but discrimination according to gender, defined as the characteristic properties of male or female. Sex discrimination in workplaces includes both types of discriminations. People who exposed to sex discrimination in their workplaces, tend to be different from their surrounding
GENDER INEQUALITY AT WORK PLACE Introduction: Gender Stereotypes: Gender is often attributed with different characteristics and as a consequence, society expects different behaviours from different genders. Society imposes certain kind of roles on people based on their gender and expects them to stick by it. These prejudices and conventional ideas that have been formed regarding the social roles of an individual based on their gender, is also termed as gender stereotype. Gender stereotypes are prescriptive as well as proscriptive in nature. Prescriptive as in, how men and women should behave, like agentic attributes are prescribed for men, while communal attributes are prescribed for women.
Sexual harassment is an unwelcome sexual advance, unwelcome request for sexual favors or other unwanted conduct of a sexual nature having the effect of verbal, non- verbal, visual, psychological or physical harassment. Sexual harassment will makes a person feel offended, humiliated and intimidated, where a reasonable person would anticipate that reaction in the circumstances. Sexual harassment in the workplace is a phenomenon that affects working conditions of employees, a serious problem that is becoming more and more common in our society and which leads to a series of serious and negative consequences or the victim and for organization. Sexual harassment will happen not only in the workplace, it might occur during outside the workplace as a result of employment responsibilities or employment relationships. Any misconduct during a work-related activity such work- related social functions, work- related travel, at work- related conferences or training sessions, even over the phone and through electronic media can constitute sexual harassment.
Harassment can include, for example, offensive comments about a person 's religious beliefs or practices. Harassment is so recurrent, severe that it creates a hostile and offensive work environment. It results in a negative employment decision such as the victim being fired, denied or demoted. The harasser can be the victim 's supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client or customer. Employer has to accommodate an employee 's religious beliefs or practices based on the law; Title VII of Civil Rights Act.
IV. Literature Review and Research Gap There are a great number of literatures, both in empirical and theoretical terms, existing around the topic of gender inequality in non-traditional professions as well as gender development and empowerment in the workplace in general. This is arguably, because sex segregation in the workplace is a broad global issue, the levels and results of which are differentiated on the unique experiences from different countries and type of economies. Hence, studies regarding this have so far produced mixed outcomes that are difficult to generalize. According to Elson and Evers in 1996, there are three dimensions of inequality “Macro, Meso and Micro” (Fontana, 2003, p.1).
WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION 1) Introduction Workplace discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, and age by employers. Not many people know what workplace discrimination is. However there has been numerous incidents of workplace discrimination happening all around the world already. 1.1) Purpose and Scope The purpose of this essay is to bring to light the issues surrounding workplace discrimination worldwide .This essay will be covering the causes of workplace discrimination , the incidences of workplace discrimination and effects of workplace discrimination
failing to invite partners of GLBT employees to social events). Both types of sexual orientation discrimination can create severe consequences for both GLBT employees and the organizations in which they work. According to one report (Poe, 1996), productivity losses caused by discrimination
Interpersonal work conflict is defined as a lack of agreement (Lawless and Trif, 2016). There are three sources of interpersonal conflict: personal characteristics, interactional difficulties and differences in perceptions (Borkowski, 2016, p. 308). The inherent differences in people, our perceptions, life circumstances and experiences lead a countless number of personal characteristics in the workplace which impact performance and outcomes (Lipsett, 2012). Interactional difficulties are ultimately the result of mismatched communication and relational skills (Borkowski, 2016, p. 309). Perspective and perceptive differences are created by the combination of conflicting personal characteristics and interactional difficulties subject to each individual's interpretation (Borkowski, 2016, p. 309).