Since the 1970’s, women have been able to attend service academies. Even in the 1990’s, they were allowed into military roles, but with many exceptions so that they could not perform in combat. Furthermore, women “earn more than 44 percent of master’s degrees in business and management, including 37 percent of MBAs” (Warner). Although there are many women who have high degrees in business, the Fortune 500 board is only about 17% woman. Women have shown in the statistics that they are capable of achieving high business degrees, so it does not make sense that they are not owning more higher ranking businesses.
In the 1970s, the wage gap decreased because “women’s progress in education and workforce participation” (Miller, 2018). However currently there is still a wage gap: for every dollar a man makes a woman makes eighty cents for same job – on average. What is being seen recently is that intersectionality plays a vital role in the wage gap as well; not only are women being paid less than men, but some races of women are being paid less than others. It was discovered that “among full-time workers in 2016, Hispanic or Latina, black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHPI) women had lower median annual earnings compared with non-Hispanic white and Asian women” (Miller, 2018). It was also revealed that Asian women have the smallest wage gap when compared to men and that Hispanic women have the largest wage gap when compared to men.
The gender gap in economic participation can be measured through the difference in numbers between men and women participating in the labour workforce. In the world currently, 82% of men participate in the labour workforce while only 56% of women do. It is estimated that if women participated in the workforce identically to men, the annual gross domestic product (GDP) in 2025 could increase as much as 26%; closing the gender gap by allowing more women to participate in the workforce is critical for long-term economic benefits. However, several factors hold women back from economic participation for several reasons, such as social norms, discriminatory laws, and gaps in legal protection. Therefore, it is crucial for governments to enforce laws
According to a survey of working parents done by Pew Research Center (2015), it is found that 39 percent of mothers took time off to take care of their children or family and 27 percent responded that they have to quit their career. On the contrary, around 24 percent of fathers reported having taken time off and only 10 percent have to leave their job due to family obligations. In order to combine work and family responsibilities, women have greater recourse to part-time work. Therefore, women tend to work shorter hours and have more career interruptions than men which lead to a passive impact on their promotion prospects and profession advancement as it also reduced women chances to have a financially rewarding
The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that single women who have never married earned 96 percent of men's earnings in 2012. When children comes into the picture, women tend to spend less time at work than men, furthermore, child care takes mothers out of the labor market, so when they return they have less work experience than similarly-aged males. Education also affects the wage gap. According to research studies, even within groups with the same educational attainment, women often choose fields of study, such as sociology, liberal arts or psychology, that pay less in the labor market. Men are more likely to major in finance, accounting or engineering.
According to the latest Forbes list of the highest paid actresses and actors, we are surprising about the pay gap between actresses and actors in Hollywood. The world’s 10 highest paid actresses received a total of $205 million over the last year, it seems a lot, but when comparing with the 10 highest paid actors combined earning $456.5 million, actresses are paying less than their male counterpart. Jennifer Lawrence, who earned $46 million as the highest paid actress last year, only ranked six if she was an actor. It is hard to image in Hollywood where people fight for the inequality and woman 's rights, still suffering from gender pay gap. We cannot deny that gender discrimination still underneath Hollywood in every aspect and a number of factors are accountable for the gender pay gap in Hollywood.
According to an American Dental Association survey, male dentists tend to earn about $42,700 more than their female counterparts in years 1995 to 2004 (Schultz). According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2004, “Male physicians earn $140,000, and females earn considerably less, $88,000. That translates into a gender wage gap of 62.9” (Zorn). The wage gap in the United States is not a problem to be taken lightly. This situation needs to be addressed by the government, similar to the Obama
These differences come from a variety of factors such as race, age, education, dedication, and experience. As a female citizen of the United States, I am lucky that my wage gap is not as large as wage gaps from other countries. When I enter the United States workforce, I will make 79 cents to every dollar that men make; however, if I were to work in Canada I would make even less, seeing as though Canadian women only make 73.5 cents compared to Canadian men (Schieder; Grant). If the gender wage gap lessens at the same rate each year as it is now, Caucasian women would see equal pay around the year 2059. African American women will wait until the year 2124 merely because the color of their skin is different from others.
Women with a master's degree earn $32,500 less than men possessing a similar degree" (2015, para. 58). Even though women are joining careers that are dominated by men the pay gap continues and even in female dominated careers there is still lower
Foremost of all, women spend a sizable portion of their income, which leads to higher demand. This causes spillages in the economy, which contributes to economic growth. Another way to say this is how Kate Bahn puts it, “In fact, comparing it to the current top priority of the GOP—tax cuts for the wealthy—equal pay would put twice as much income back into our economy as their current proposed tax cuts.” (Bahn, 2017, p.1) This means that two times as much more money our economy would have by now, if equal
This means that for every $1.00 earned by a male worker, a female worker earns 74 cents. most jobs in the booming oil and constructions industries—as one possible reason for the stagnation in the gender income gap. For the most highly educated Canadian women, gender differences in earnings within identical occupations are generally very small among new entrants to the labor force. The focus on this survey was concentrated on causes the wage’s gap between different genders. The report showed how different genders choose their job by categorizing occupations.
This article focused on gender differences in the work place. These gender differences include the difference in salary and growth potential women have against men. I felt this article paired well with the case “Leadership in Law: Amy Schulman at DLA Piper” which was focused on Amy Shulman one of the highest paid female attorney’s in the United States. Women tend to make only 77% of their male counterparts in similar positions. The article shows the possible reasons behind why women typically make less than men on average.
Minimum wage would raise the wages of many workers and increment benefits what disadvantaged workers. An estimated 6.9 million workers would receive an incrementation in their hourly wage if the minimum rage were raised to $10.15 by 2015. Due to the spill over effect the 10.5 million workers earning up to a dollar above minimum wage would withal be liable to benefit from an incrementation. Women are the most astronomically immense group of beneficiaries from a minimum wage increase. Sixty percent of workers who would benefit from an incrementation are women.
“After World War II, large number of African-American women moved into government white-collar and clerical jobs and the lowest-level private sector jobs, such as data entry or filing clerks; unlike white women that are steered into traditional female occupations such as teaching, and social work” (Lindsey, 2011, pg. 292). Another, recognized jeopardy was that of sexual orientation, these gay men would receive less pay than other heterosexual men if related to one of these individuals; but lesbians related to heterosexuals their wage jumped. This is because these women seem to hold higher position within a company than that of gay men, and can handle conflicting issues with successful reconciliation compared to that of men. “Lesbian families exhibit role flexibility and even in their child-centered homes biological parent is not given a higher rank over primary caregiver or wage earner” (Stuart, 2007: Hillary and Stuart, 2007 as cited in Lindsey, 2011.