In a society rife with gender stereotypes and biases, children regularly learn to adopt gender roles which are not always fair to both sexes. As children move through childhood and into adolescence, they are exposed to many factors which influence their attitudes and behaviours regarding gender roles. These attitudes and behaviours are generally learned first in the home and are then reinforced by the child‘s peers, school experience, and television viewing. However, the strongest influence on gender role development seems to occur within the family setting, with parents passing on, both overtly and covertly, their own beliefs about gender. This overview of the impact of parental influence on gender role development leads to the suggestion
The children of authoritarian parents tend to be controlled through shaming, the withdrawal of love, or other punishments and reasons for rules are not usually explained (Baumrind 1966). According to the research of Baumrind parenting styles shows results of predicting child well-being in the key areas of social competence, academic performance, behaviour and psychological development. Children and adolescents from authoritarian families tend to perform moderately well in school and be uninvolved in problem behavior, but they have poorer social skills, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression (Baumrind
First one is complimentary parenting style where both the parents use same parenting style that is both mother and father follow same style . the second one is non complimentary parenting style where parents follow dfferent parenting style. It is believed that a child’s personality development completely depends on the way their parents interact with the child. The type of discipline that a parent uses with their child can have a dramatic effect on their child’s development. These discipline strategies can have a big impact on the type of relationship one has with their child.
(2012), parenting styles are crucial agents that influencing all aspects and stages of a child 's development. According to Maccoby & Martin (1983) (as cited in Ishak et al., 2012) parenting is a continuum and includes two significant elements “responsiveness” and “demandingness”. According to Baurmind (1991); the parental demandingness refers to “the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family as a whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys’’ and responsiveness refers to ‘‘the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children’s special needs and
This concept is based on the social-cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation (Bussey & Bandura, 1999), specifically the socio-cognitive modes of influence: modeling, enactive experience, and direct tuition. Through the exemplified modeling of parents and peers regarding gender-typed behavior, a great gender-related information is cognitively processed to an individual. Then by this processed information, they can develop gender orientations by observing the positive and negative consequences accompanying different patterns of behaviors, as an individual rely on their good judgment whether to do what was taught them or not. Finally, as they learn from modeling, and the new information undergone a cognitive process, they will now exhibit the learned model behaviour and knowledge on their selves and with their environment. In this regard, through modeling and socialization, gender-linked information is cognitively processed to an individual.
These gender roles evolve from standards put in place by society. What do theorists say about socialization and gender in child development? One of the major theories that are beneficial in learning about gender role development is the Social Learning Theory. According to behaviorist, Bandura, children first learn gender roles by observing behaviors of an adult of the same sex, imitating said adult (Bandura, 1977). Then, the surrounding adult will respond either with positive or negative reinforcement (Bandura, 1977).
Parenting practices/parenting styles Interaction between parents and children in this thesis in the context of parents’ struggle to find an appropriate answer to their children’s questions, could be also define as parenting styles (Darling & Steinberg 1993). Darlin and Steinberg (1993) define the parenting styles as parents’ behaviors and characteristics which is the important part of parent-child interaction and relationships over a wide range of situations. Some of the parents’ styles which are discussed in the literature are presented in the following. The importance of parental expectations of children is described in Ochs and Schieffelin (1984). Their research and further language socialization studies show that perceptions of children and children’s competence influence caregiver-child interaction.
Family responsibilities are an important factor to investigate their impact on female youths in decision-making. Hence, also investigating on how the matter of decision-making may also be influenced by their or responsibilities or aspirations. This section looks at the notion of family and how it may be related to familial responsibilities for female youths in underprivileged families. The idea of family in the matter of the types of relationships between family members were expressed by Parkin and Stone (2004), as they stated on how family members is either related through affinal relationship (through marriage) or consanguinity (also called ‘kinship’/blood related). In Brunei, there is a social norm that highly prioritizes the idea of taking care of families, both through marriage and blood.
Males and Females act differently due to the different social roles they learn throughout their time growing up, however by gender socializing children, we are doing more harm than good for them as the get older. Personal health of a single person is based off a number of circumstances; however, a vast majority