For example, “American employers tend to prefer white workers over black ones” (Djamba, and Kimuna). When American employers prefer to offer only jobs to white workers than non-white workers, it causes discrimination and racism because employers have a different concept towards none-whit workers; therefore, employers offer low pay salaries to blacks, Hispanic, and other minority groups. However, some people had said that Hispanics women make more money than white women; according to Peter Mchenry on his paper Estimating Hispanic-White Wage Gaps Among Women: The Importance of Controlling for Cost of Living, argues that “Hispanic women nurses and K-12 teachers get a higher salary than white women.” Therefore, many seem to believe that there is no racial wage gap against women from different ethnicities. In the other hand, Mchenry also argues that the reason why Hispanic women make
It occurs when a person is treated with disadvantageously due to their sex. One of the places that practise gender discrimination commonly is in the labour force. A job applicant may face discriminatory hiring practices or treatment when looking for a job. According to Becker (1957) in Fugueiredo M’s (2013) research, gender discrimination in the labour market is defined as A premium required to work with, buy from or employ a member of the group one discriminates against when that person is, except for group membership, identical to other individuals who are not discriminated against. The supply of members of that group and the distribution of preferences among the majority generate the observed outcome of market discrimination.
He attempts to prove that each arguments made by Shackleton is wrong. Even the women that have chosen a well-paid career and completed high levels of education seeking to get bigger earns, they found that men will still be making more money while getting more education as well. Lips also states that even when women enter male-dominated jobs they will get more, but not more than males. For women the dream of narrowing the gender wage gap means to impose in a world made for males. Another suggestion made by Lips was that if the employers continue to consider women’s work such as domestic and caretaker less important, then the gap will never be closed or it will only be good for those women who decide to not to have children.
Finally, the micro-level “examines in greater detail the gender division of labour, resources and decision-making, particularly within the household” or individual level (ibid). The first body of literature relates to the levels of inequality in the workplace that provide different insights on the reasons for occurrence of the occupational gender segregation of work in all the three dimensions of inequality. At the macro-level it was highlighted in the report of the ILO on “Responding to Economic Crisis” that the “male-breadwinner, female-caregiver bias” was still a dominant societal thinking (Dejardin & Owens, 2009, p.5) that has spilled over to the world of work. It is reflected in most national policies implemented such as “inequitable access of women to social security entitlements” based on the assumption that women
After stating the positive advancements women have made, the essay then addresses the wage gap and how gender stereotypes can cause women to be drawn to certain careers that make less money. It is in interesting to read about the different jobs that men and women are gravitating towards, and how society might be shaping us that way as children. The statistics make it clear that women make up almost all of the jobs in fields such as teaching, nursing, secretaries, and social workers while men make up majority of the corporate leaders, engineers, construction workers, and financial managers. This information is relevant because it shows that the occupations women are going towards are more flexible in hours, but earn less money than the occupations filled majorly by men. This source offers similar information on the wage gap, but by focusing on gender stereotypes and norms it will bring in different aspects to the final research
Given that feminine skills are traditionally rewarded less both in pay & prestige, the crowding of women in predominantly female dominated occupations make those certain occupations valued less in both salary & status and existence of females in primarily male dominated jobs make them earn relatively less than men (because they may not be considered equally efficient for a physical , technical job due to education, training deprivation & most important their domestic duties like maternity leave , child care etc which make employers doubt their time commitment towards work. . In case of female dominated jobs, another factor is that, women’s wages are inversely related with the percentage of females in that job, but men’s wages are likely to stay unaffected For example, Teaching in recent generations, is traditionally a female- dominated profession. However, when job posts come up for women in business and other high-earning occupations, school boards must raise the salaries of potential teachers to attract candidates and vice versa scope of falling women teacher’ salaries if major working women percentage are
The paper will conclude with a comparison of which writer and how their ideas contribute to the understanding of inequality in the 21st centaury. Throughout A Room of One’s Own, the writer, Virginia Woolf, emphasizes the fact that women are treated unequally in her society which has led to the production, by women, of less prominent works in comparison to men. Woolf explains the difference in success between man and woman in two parts. She first explains that the values of women differ very often from the values of men, and goes on to say that in any case it is
According Eurostat, in 2014 women 's gross hourly earnings were on average 16.1% below those of men in the European Union. Gender pay gap is becoming more important subject of various discussions. One of the major fighters in this gender based problem are feminists. They claim that an unequal payment is a consequence of man’s dominant position in the society. Scientists are less likely to agree with this concept and their opinion is more upheld by the variety of social and economic factors as well as personal life choices and each of them has a notable effect on different earnings among men and women.
A few studies exist on the ripple effects of minimum wages on other wages in developing countries. The studies include Bell (1997) on Colombia and Mexico, Rama (2001) on Indonesia, Gindling and Terrell (2004) on Costa Rica, Fairris et al. (2006) on Mexico and Omolo (2008) on Kenya. Nkatha (2013) carried a study on the role of trade unions on performance based pay and thus there exists the gap to be addressed on the role of industrial and labour relations on pay (wage) determination among in Kenya. Objectives of the Study Main Objective The study main objective is to assess of the role of industrial and labour relations on pay determination among public service in Kenya, a case of teachers in Nairobi County Specific Objectives 1) To examine the current industrial labour relation environment in Kenya and the effects on pay determination among public service in Kenya, a case of teachers in Nairobi County.