The aim of my study is to fully comprehend the term “the gaze” by relating the issue to woman through out history and in modern day and age. I aim to determine how woman are represented in a stereotypical view and what constructed this idea to most people in society. The purpose of this essay is to comprehend different theories of the Gaze and how id directly links to how power is established in society by applying these theories. This study shows importance as it makes us aware of the theories and understandings regarding to how society can accept stereotypical views and what constructs stereotypical views in modern day. It is important to understand the background of what empowers civilisation, typically by ‘othering’ minorities.
It is also a prerequisite for developing effective strategies to liberate women and identifies the underlying causes of women’s subordination. Dr. Rosemarie Tong a distinguished Professor of Health Care Ethics in the Department of Philosophy, suggests that feminist theory attempts to describe women’s oppression, to explain its causes and consequences, and to prescribe strategies for women’s liberation. In “Women Do Theory,” Jane Flax, a professor in the department of political science, suggests that theory is a systematic, analytic approach to everyday experience. Flax argues that everybody does this unconsciously and that to theorize is to bring this unconscious process to a conscious level so that it can be developed and refined. According to Flax, feminist theory seeks to understand the power differential between men and women, seeks to understand women’s oppression—how it evolved, how it changes over time, how it is related to other forms of oppression and how to overcome these oppressions.
Lombroso and Ferrero were two of the main positivists that produced an explanation for feminist criminality. Lombroso was especially influenced by the biology. Lombroso and Ferrero’s work on female criminality concluded that there were more born female criminals than males, they believed this as they thought that women are less highly developed. Lombroso also believed if the criminal was a prostitute she is useful for satisfying males sexual demands and with having this opinion he had to try to fend off criticism from the feminist critics who attacked him for denigrating women. Anna Kuliscioff a socialist, feminist and physician dismissed his views even though she was a family friend, although some feminists see positivism as a valuable thing as it adds validity to feminist research projects and say that the practice of positivism can lead to “bad science”.
In several parts of the world, women are still treated as subordinates to men. This been accompanied by several issues of oppressions, humiliation, discrimination, control, exploitation, and violence. Women are being treated unequally when it comes to their basic rights to food, education, healthcare, and employment opportunities. The men make all the decisions when it comes to the control of productive resources in the society, they hold the most powerful positions, and they look down to women because of their gender differences. Gender based discrimination has been on the spread as they have become more accepted in modern societies.
In more recent years, it has become more common to see a female teacher having relations with a student, but rarely do we hear about a man being assaulted on the street and raped by a woman. It’s really almost comical to imagine because it is so out of gender norms. Society as a whole holds female offenders to a much lesser evil than male offenders. Sexual offenses committed by women are likely underestimated and under-reported. According to Figure 2 we notice that women offenders are typically victims of previous abuse, whether it is physical, sexual, or emotional.
To initiate, the implementation of gender equality laws will help conclude unequal treatment towards women and create opportunities for women to refuse unsafe work and treatments. Also, without the right to make individual choices for body, women 's prosperity, well-being, and potential in society are restricted and gender inequality is therefore perpetuated. According to the academic article, Sexual Health’s Women’s Rights, “120 million girls worldwide have experienced forced intercourse” (Ngcuka) activities against their own individual soul. Many women are suffering from forced physical and sexual violence because of the limited laws and regulations that allow women to refuse unsafe treatments and practices. According to reports, the “ 32
According to Catherine Mackinnon a noted legal scholar and feminist, sexual harassment is "the unwanted imposition of sexual requirement in the context of a relationship of unequal power" (MacKinnon, 1979). Sexual harassment generally falls under two categories: quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment. In addition, the majority of victims reporting occurrences of case involving sexual harassment are women, and the lion 's share of reported aggressors are men. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission give legal response to casualties of such inappropriate behavior. A few sociologists relate the full coordination of women into the cutting edge workforce with an increment in cases of sexual harassment.
used a mixed-method design to test the sexual harassment among U.S. middle school students (176). In the research, they used “The 14-item AAUW Sexual Harassment Survey” to measure the frequency of unwanted sexual harassment. Sexual harassment occurred most frequently in hallways, followed by classrooms. Girls and boys reported different people as perpetrators. From the survey, we can know that there are six types of the most upsetting unwanted incidents: (1) verbal - homophobic language; (2) verbal - sexual commentary and sexual rumor spreading; (3) physical – being touched; (4) pulling down pants; (5) being sexually assaulted; and (6) dismissiveness of victimization.
Gardner (1995) reported that many men/women use a romanticized rhetoric in response to harassment. From this perspective, women may view harassment as flattery, as due to the nature of men (i.e., “Boys will be boys”), or as harmless. However, women who were harassed by someone they knew for more likely to experience negative effects in only one of those contexts. In work or schools, colleges, universities settings, a men or woman may know his/her harasser, but public harassment is defined as occurring between strangers. Additionally, men/women at work or schools, colleges, universities may be able to more directly respond to harassment than they can on the street, such as by turning to employment policies.
According to the human development report , 1997 , It stated that "No society treats its women as well as its men". The issues of equality in the workplace and affirmative action have been hovering over the working world 's head for many years now. This problem is considered one of the most problems affecting the society , due to its penetration in many fields. Equality should be achievied , not only because it 's fair and it 's the right thing , but also because equality is vitally important to the productions of nations. So It cannot be denied that gender inequality in workplaces is the most negatively effective on women , because at workplaces , employees should be treated on how they work not either they 're men or women.