Gender Inequality In Morocco

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INTRODUCTION
‘’According to the UN gender inequality index, Morocco ranked 113th out of 155 countries, below other MENAP countries such as Tunisia (48), Algeria (85) and Jordan (102)’’ as starts a report made by the IMF earlier this year that specifically addresses the gender inequality in Morocco and the urgency to undertake action regarding the matter (IMF 2017, 3). Morocco is a country in northern Africa, part of the MENAP region , and seems to have been undergoing a slowing economy over the past five years, with limited job opportunities (22 percent of youth unemployment), and fewer women in the workplace as compared to men (25 percent of participation rate compared to over 66 percent) (IMF, 2017). Gender inequality seems to have been
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More specifically, gender inequality in education and employment reduce economic growth (Klasen 2003, 3). This explicitly came forward when assessing Morocco’s economy in the earlier mentioned IMF report, looking at the relationship between gender inequality and growth, and found that better integration of women into the economy could substantially positively influence the country’s growth: if there were as many women working as men currently are in Morocco, income per capita would increase by 150 percent (IMF 2017). Regarding Morocco in this context, it seems to be the case that indeed, inequality – in this case gender inequality- does indeed hinder the country’s (economic) growth. In relation to globalisation and its processes that result in a more integrated world, gender equality takes significant costs. A main aspect of globalisation is international trade, which generally, increases welfare (Beugelsdijk et al. 2013, 409). However, subsequently, it can decrease a country’s capacities to compete internationally – especially those countries with potential in export goods and services that require high female employment (Worldbank 2012, 254). Moreover, the global awareness of women’s rights, gender inequality, and the relevance of gender equality…show more content…
4. Christina M. Graf. ‘’Human Capital Theory.’’ Digital Image. In ADN to BSN: Lessons v from Human Capital Theory. Nursing Economics, 2006.
In order to analyse the relationship between the development of human capital, such as education and vocational training, and economic opportunities and productivity, such as active participation in the labour force, the human capital theory is a useful tool. Human capital theory essentially states that the development of skills and knowledge are of importance in production activities, such as economic productivity (Olaniyan and Okemakinde 2008, 479) (Figure 4). Becker emphasizes the specific importance of education and training by asserting that they are the most important investments in human capital (Becker 1994, 17). Klasen goes further by elaborating on this and states that gender disparities in education has a direct effect on economic growth as the average human capital of a given country is being lowered (Klasen 2002, 345). Increasing human capital by means of schooling, education, and training is thus of great relevance for performing economic productivity, such as participating in the labour force. The Moroccan case seems to be a perfect example of this argument. As we have seen, there is a substantial lower degree of women obtaining (higher) education/schooling/training in Morocco and this seems to manifest itself in their participation in the labour force (Figure

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