CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW There are a number of studies that have examined the impact of gender inequality in education, employment and health on economic growth and development. Seguino (2000) examines empirically the determinants of economic growth for a set of semi-industrialized export-oriented economies in which women provide the bulk of labor in the export sector. In this paper the basic hypothesis tested is that gender inequality which causes to women’s relatively lower wages was a stimulus to growth via the effect on exports during 1975-95. The empirical findings show that GDP growth is positively associated to gender wage inequality in contrast to recent work which suggests that income inequality reduces growth. It is also indicated in the results, that part of the effect of gender wage inequality on growth is transferred through its positive effect on investment as a share of GDP.
Microcredit is a powerful tool to self-empower the poor people particularly women at world level and particularly in developing countries. Microcredit activities can give them a means to climb out of poverty. From early 1970’s women movement in number of countries increasing to improve poverty through micro credit programs. The problem of women less access to credit was given a particular concentration at first. The deficient in credit convenience implies that poor people borrow from money lenders at very high of interest per year, but they are generally doing so not to make long term useful investments but to meet short term consumption needs (Morduch, 1998).
Therefore, it is crucial for governments to enforce laws to create favourable environments to encourage more women to join the workforce. I will be focusing on the gender gap in economic participation in China and Japan as these two countries boast the second and third highest GDP in the world respectively (http://statisticstimes.com/economy/countries-by-projected-gdp.php), but rank in the bottom half of the Global Gender Gap report 2016, coming in 81st and 111th respectively out of 144 countries, and efforts have been taken by both governments to encourage more women to participate in the workforce. I will discuss of the effectiveness of these actions taken by the governments to reduce the gender gap in economic participation. As long as the government is involved, the gender gap in
INCREASE IN GENDER EQUALITY IMPROVES ECONOMIC GROWTH Gender equality will improve human capital Better-educated women can undertake higher-value economic activity. Countries are rarely rich if they have poor gender fairness in education. Financial growth since 1960 would probably have been appreciably advanced in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA),
As gender gap directly affect the development so many macro indicators are now used to differentiate literacy, educational, and economic activity between men and women so that it can be monitor scientifically for better progress. According to the World Bank, investing in women is the most beneficial investment a developing country can start. Educated women lean towards to marry later, use contraceptives more frequently, and have advanced economic activity rates. The social benefits of reducing fertility and population growth and investing future generations in terms of higher survival and good nutrition, health, and education for children, are comprehensively documented so as a result girls receive less education, health care, and other means than boys. Evidence directs that economies with high gender inequality
Thereofre, Dove must develop a strategy to lower the prices of its products to allow more sales in both modern and less developed countries, for both middle and upper class group of people. • being a very huge brand, Dove faces tough competition from Olay, Nivea, and Neutrogena. The brands are getting stronger as they grow and their market is also expanding. Their marketing technique is not as good as that of Dove but they d pose as a threat to the market share of Dove. Another aspect is of being known as the brand for fat girls.
Economic growth due to increase in human capital achieved with the gender equality. As women are better-educated, they can be involved in higher-value economic activity, with some exceptions of resource-rich countries, most of the countries are rarely wealthy when the gender equality in education is poor. No country has achieved both GDP per capita of over $10’000 and a ratio of girls to boys in primary education of less than 90%. Stephan Klasen and Francesca Lamanna estimated that loss of growth owing to gender inequality in education rage from 0.38% in sub-Saharan Africa and 0.81% in South Asia per year accounting for 11%~41% of the growth difference between these regions and East Asia and Pacific. This proves why there is greater gender equality in higher-income countries than low-income countries.
So, women all over the world appear to be concentrated in low-productivity jobs” (World Bank, 2012). This is known as segregation based on gender. This gap is observed on a large scale in rural areas than in the urban areas. AGRICUTLURE SECTOR: As mentioned above, there is a large wage gap in between the male and females of our country. The largest wage gap was observed in the ploughing operations in the year 2009, where men were paid Rs103 per day while the female were paid Rs55 per day, with a wage gap ratio of 1.87.
Women, education and work The education gap decreased in the last decades, but Nigeria is still classified as a low development country concerning this aspect. The female adult literacy rate is 59.4%, while men reach up to 74.4%. The enrollment for Primary, Secondary and Tertiary schools, women’s percentage reaches to 57%, while men up to 71%. Even fewer women are involved in the paid work field. In high prestigious jobs, the women cover a small percentage: 2.5% in architecture, 3.5% lawyers, 25% lecturers, 11% obstetricians and 8.4% pediatricians (Adeniran 2007).