Gender Inequality Literature Review

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IV. Literature Review and Research Gap

There are a great number of literatures, both in empirical and theoretical terms, existing around the topic of gender inequality in non-traditional professions as well as gender development and empowerment in the workplace in general. This is arguably, because sex segregation in the workplace is a broad global issue, the levels and results of which are differentiated on the unique experiences from different countries and type of economies. Hence, studies regarding this have so far produced mixed outcomes that are difficult to generalize. According to Elson and Evers in 1996, there are three dimensions of inequality “Macro, Meso and Micro” (Fontana, 2003, p.1). Macro-level inequality examines the differences
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Finally, the micro-level “examines in greater detail the gender division of labour, resources and decision-making, particularly within the household” or individual level (ibid).

The first body of literature relates to the levels of inequality in the workplace that provide different insights on the reasons for occurrence of the occupational gender segregation of work in all the three dimensions of inequality. At the macro-level it was highlighted in the report of the ILO on “Responding to Economic Crisis” that the “male-breadwinner, female-caregiver bias” was still a dominant societal thinking (Dejardin & Owens, 2009, p.5) that has spilled over to the world of work. It is reflected in most national policies implemented such as “inequitable access of women to social security entitlements” based on the assumption that women
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Research Question and Assumptions
The central question this study would like to address is why women, whether they are in a developing or developed countries are underrepresented in non-traditional professions in the automotive industry?
Underlying the main research question are different sub-questions that include:
1. What are non-traditional professions?
2. Why is there an occupational segregation of work along gender lines? What are the different characteristics of “male professions” and “female professions?
3. Focusing on the Automotive Industry – what makes it a male industry?
4. What is the general background of Automotive Industry in Germany and the Philippines? How does this sector contribute to the economic development of both countries?
5. What is the profile of the workforce in this sector for both Germany and the Philippines
6. What are the general hiring preferences of companies in this sector for both countries?
7. Are there strategies in place by either the companies of this sector and the governments of both countries in encouraging women’s participation in professions in this sector? If yes, what are these strategies? Are they effective?

Meanwhile, this study is grounded on several

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