In a paper by Watson (2017) the author states “Primarily, women are more likely to take time off work for childcare, leading to less experience and fewer opportunities for career growth later in life. Some blame oppressive societal gender roles for urging women to be the caretakers of the home, but the reality is that women are less likely to devote the majority of their lives to their careers -- leading to fewer overall wage earnings.” (P. 1). These factors such as being caretakers at home are reasons why when wage gap is calculated it is seen that women are earning less than men but as explained because some women do not devote themselves to
“Doing” gender is an option. Structural-functionalist Theory- Each sex has a role to play in the interdependent groups and institutions of society. As societies organize, roles and relationships change. Complimentary roles are necessary for efficiency in society. Conflict Theory- By keeping women in subordinate roles, men ensure that they control the means of production and protect their privileges.
That is to say, the male and female employ gendered discourse strategies in passing their identities as men or woman which are congruent with the prevailing codes of gender. This is not to deny the fact that it is impossible for men and women to challenge, misbehave, or subvert the gender norms which are intensely entrenched in society, Peck(2000) and genders talk and differ in their discourse analyses the forms of speech, topics, intonation or grammatical features which make the language of men and women distinct. Explanations for the differences to point boys and girls as socially trained to behave as male or female. The differences seem to be linked to a different society, and women holding a disadvantageous role that is deficient or subordinate to
One of these perspectives is analyzing communication through gender. In the book, You Just Don’t Understand, Deborah Tannen (1990) popularized the term “genderlect” to describe the way in which men and women communicate with each other. She suggested that men and women have different styles of conversing, forming two distinct dialects. In a review of Tannen’s book, DeFrancisco (1992) attributed the differing communication styles of men and women to the respective cultures in which they grow up. Because of such gender differences, misunderstanding between men and women creates a gap in the communication process.
It is essential to convey these western ideas everywhere, as they are most humanist and just, so far. So, the issue is whether the spread of those ideas by globalization has improved the gender equality. Whether the globalization influences the gender equality, in what direction the change happens, and how the globalization affects the gender equality on employment are the main subjects to review for the purpose of ensuring the relationship between the variables. The literature used for the review covers different regions, yet the majority are the case studies from the developing states, where the gender equality has been worse. First of all, the changes on the human rights, particularly gender equality, due to the globalization is discernible, and it occurs through multiple means.
Still, I want to summarize some potential future developments in the following section. One possible long-term implication that employment protection and pay will be reduced for both, women and men, due to the severity and length of the recession and the austerity period. This would result in more flexible and less regulated labor markets and a downward convergence in the employment conditions for both genders – which can already be seen in the lower pay for men and the higher share of male part-time workers. Other implications could be a downgrading of status and pay of public sector employees, and a decrease of high quality social services to replace and support women’s domestic labor (Karamessini & Rubery,
Gender Equality: “refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Gender equality implies that the interests, needs and priorities of both women and men are taken into consideration, recognizing the diversity of different groups of women and men.” (Interplast, 2013) 5. Gender-based violence: “violence that is directed against a person on the basis of gender. It constitutes a breach of the fundamen1tal right to life, liberty, security, and dignity, equality between women and men, non-discrimination and physical and mental integrity.” (European Institute For Gender equality, 2014) 2) Situations where I have experienced typical gender stereotyping were when the men in the family blatantly said that men should not cook, or work in the
Gender mainstreaming appeared in the context of international development as an additional approach to help reduce inequalities and improve women's condition. Unlike stand-alone, mostly women-centered, initiatives that seek to tangibly improve the situation of particular groups or individuals, gender mainstreaming is a process that strives to incorporate men-women equality dimension into the strategy and practical operation of various institutions on a large-scale basis. This includes assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programs, and addressing the inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making, at all levels, with the ultimate goal of
Gender analysis is a practice that calls attention to gender equality; it is a tool used to analyze gender disparities. The researchers’ strategy or main focus is to use a number of methods or frameworks on both sexes. They examine relationships among women and men in a private, social, and economic setting. Based on their findings and results, they think of better implications that these organizations/programs can then adopt. All of this is completed to ensure that equalities among women, men, girls, and boys are met; to make sure that all necessities of men and specifically women are taken into account in order to improve gender equality.
Nevertheless, women are less likely than men with similar characteristics to enter the labour market, but gender differences in participation narrow as education increases. The author observes that discrimination in the labour market gives rise to three of the observed gender biases: First, controlling for education, women are less likely to work for wages than men. Neitzert (1994) argues that women’s participation in the paid labour market is curtailed relative to their male counterparts because the labour market provides incentives that tend to reproduce the existing sexual division of labour in which women specialize in household and subsistence production and men participate in market production. The author observes that the effect of discrimination is to redistribute wages only within each type of labour and that the resulting estimate of wage discrimination is sensitive to differences in the distribution of characteristics across men and women. Negatu (1993) supports these studies and argues that experience and the nature of the labour market itself lead to differences in labour market participation by gender.