A Reference Material. Applying RBA in the Project Cycle, p.11. Inequality for Women “Women and men are not created equal. They each have their God given strengths, focused on their responsibilities for procreation and family viability. Those differences are not easily dismissed… however those differences do not condone gender discrimination in society, and certainly not in the workplace.” (Malkin, 2005) Women mostly have unequal access to health services and education, face glass ceiling at work place.
CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED WHEN TRYING TO CURB SEXUAL & RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AT WORKPLACES. Discrimination wrongfully inflicts disadvantageous treatment on persons based on their affiliation in a significant social group. Racial Profiling By definition, racial profiling is treating someone first as a “suspect,” using a person’s race, religion and/or ethnicity alone as a sufficient prognostic indicator of potential unlawful behavior. In the workplace, racial profiling is a very big part of our daily workforce. It may fall under the following on the basis of a person’s race, religion and/or ethnicity: • Failing or refusing to hire an employee; • Firing or disciplining an employee; • Providing fewer benefits, promotions, opportunities
It occurs when a person is treated with disadvantageously due to their sex. One of the places that practise gender discrimination commonly is in the labour force. A job applicant may face discriminatory hiring practices or treatment when looking for a job. According to Becker (1957) in Fugueiredo M’s (2013) research, gender discrimination in the labour market is defined as A premium required to work with, buy from or employ a member of the group one discriminates against when that person is, except for group membership, identical to other individuals who are not discriminated against. The supply of members of that group and the distribution of preferences among the majority generate the observed outcome of market discrimination.
Gender inequality in education is one of the major flaws that Pakistani education entails that is a threat to development in Pakistan. It is universally believed that education is one of the basic rights of every human being. However, girls suffer exclusion and disadvantage in Pakistani education system. The illiteracy rate in Pakistan twice as high as for males and the number of educational institutions, private educational institutes and available education facilities are not equally provided (Khan 78). So such inequalities oppress women and they lose opportunities like less accessibility to education, become dependent on males socially and economically.
“These double standards are longstanding. For most of recorded history, women were largely excluded from leadership positions.” Achieving gender-balanced boards is currently a troublesome issue regarding the gender-equality in European Union and its Member States. Insufficient presence of women is particularly noticeable in the analysis of the leading positions in parliaments, governments and countries, which confirms the pyramid principle. The number of women decreases parallel with increasement of decision-making levels on key positions. It is possible to assume that discrimination is lower where there is a greater possibility of social control, which is certainly a case in politics, as opposed to family and work.
This environment must be upheld in order for true success and advancements to be reached as a whole in the workplace. The full potential of workplaces today are all held back by an ongoing issue in society: sexism. Sexism is the discrimination of an individual due to their gender which is usually caused by an attached stigma to that sex. This type of discrimination has been targeting women in the workplace for a long time now, suppressing the real potential of what they can bring. It is being proven by professionals that sexism towards women in the workplace is being shown through various forms of discrimination in policies, its effects on women’s health and jobs, and the leading solutions that seem to be arising from it.
Through interviews with Boston based blue-collar workers, the authors documented how the workers frequently expressed anger, pain and humiliation. These feelings, contended Sennett and Cobb, stemmed from the belief that they were powerless in improving their place in society. The workers spoke of pain and resentment at being treated in their work as mere 'cogs in the machine,' or just 'Rita the janitor.' The insight here, is that despite efforts by made by working class individuals to move on in life, classed experiences can have a detrimental impact on a person's social identity and their sense of place within hierarchies of respectability. One of the most significant observations noted by the authors, was that working class people often assume personal responsibility for their social position.
However, LGBT discrimination (e.g., employment discrimination) is still an ongoing social issue. Various literatures exist to support the argument that sexual minorities are disadvantaged and subject to employment discrimination. This arises from the negative stereotypes and heterosexual dominance, which is linked to poor psychological well-being. According to Mize (2016), the vulnerable group experiences different forms of workplace discrimination such as, job rejection and termination. Other studies have reiterated this finding and expanded the list to include: verbal harassments (e.g., threats, negative comments, and inappropriate jokes), physical harassments, sexual harassments, denial of promotions, and untrue performance appraisals.
Citizenship has always been gendered in the sense that women and men have stood in a different relationship to it, to the disadvantage of women (Lister 1998). The obligations associated with citizenship needs to be understood in the context of gender relation and division of labour. (Meer and Sever, 2004) People’s social roles and responsibilities are central to their experience of citizenship. Men and Women’s role and status vary from society to society. (Meer and Sever, 2004) Citizenship has brought about women being treated unequally as compared to their male counterpart or less valued because of their gender.
Pay Gap: a bitter difficulty Women and men should receive the same salary for doing the same job. That is the idealistic concept that fits very well in an invented society. However, gender pay gap shows one of the worst discrimination problems nowadays. After several investigations, many factors show that women receive an inferior amount of money in comparison with men, simply due to the gender difference. Thus, the debate is on the table.